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Thursday, June 13

Against Our Better Judgment The hidden history of how the United States was used to create Israel
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Louis Brandeis, flanked by Rabbi Stephen Samuel Wise, founding secretary of the American Federation of Zionists (right) and Nathan Straus, co-owner of Macy’s (Source: Library of Congress)
By Alison Weir
Alison Weir is Executive Director If Americans Knew and President of theCouncil for the National Interest. She is available to give presentations on this topic and can be reached at contact@ ifamericansknew.org.
This is an uncorrected proof of an upcoming book; in addition to finalizing footnotes, additional information is still being added. We feel the information is so important that we are distributing this version ahead of time.

How the U.S. “special relationship” with Israel came about

While many people are led to believe that U.S. support for Israel is driven by the American establishment and U.S. national interests, the facts don't support this theory. The reality is that for decades U.S. foreign policy and defense experts opposed supporting the creation of Israel. They then similarly opposed the massive American funding and diplomatic support that sustained the forcibly established state and that provided a blank check for its aggressive expansion. They were simply outmaneuvered and eventually replaced.
Like many American policies, U.S. Middle East policies are driven by a special interest lobby. However, the Israel Lobby, as it is called today in the U.S.[1], consists of vastly more than what most people envision in the word "lobby."
As this article will demonstrate, the Israel Lobby is considerably more powerful and pervasive than other lobbies. Components of it, both individuals and groups, have worked underground, secretly and even illegally throughout its history, as documented by scholars and participants.
And even though the movement for Israel has been operating in the U.S. for over a hundred years, most Americans are completely unaware of this movement and its attendant ideology – a measure of its unique influence over public knowledge.
The success of this movement to achieve its goals, partly due to the hidden nature of much of its activity, has been staggering. It has also been at almost unimaginable cost.
It has led to massive tragedy in the Middle East: a hundred-year war of violence and loss; sacred land soaked in sorrow.
In addition, this movement has been profoundly damaging to the United States itself.
As we will see in this two-part examination of the pro-Israel movement, it has targeted virtually every significant sector of American society; worked to involve Americans in tragic, unnecessary, and profoundly costly wars; dominated Congress for decades; increasingly determined which candidates could become serious contenders for the U.S. presidency; and promoted bigotry toward an entire population, religion and culture.
It has promoted policies that have exposed Americans to growing danger, and then exaggerated this danger (while disguising its cause), fueling actions that dismember some of our nation's most fundamental freedoms and cherished principles.[2]
All this for a population that is considerably smaller than New Jersey.[3]

The beginnings

The Israel Lobby in the U.S. is just the tip of an older and far larger iceberg known as "political Zionism," an international movement that began in the late 1800s with the goal of creating a Jewish state somewhere in the world. In 1897 this movement, led by a European journalist named Theodore Herzl[4] coalesced in the First Zionist World Congress, held in Basle, Switzerland, which established the World Zionist Organization, representing approximately 120 groups the first year; 900 the next.[5]
While Zionists considered such places as Argentina, Uganda, and Texas,[6] they eventually settled on Palestine for the location of their proposed Jewish State, even though Palestine was already inhabited by a population that was 95 percent Muslims and Christians, who owned 99 percent of the land.[7] As numerous Zionist diary entries, letters, and other documents show, Zionists planned to push out these non-Jews – financially, if possible; violently if necessary.[8]

Political Zionism in the U.S.

In the 1880s groups advocating the setting up of a Jewish state began popping up around the United States.[9] Emma Lazarus, the poet whose words would adorn the Statue of Liberty, promoted Zionism throughout this decade.[10] A precursor to the Israeli flag was created in Boston in 1891.[11]
In 1887 President Grover Cleveland appointed a Jewish ambassador to Turkey (then under the Ottoman Empire), which at that time controlled Palestine, because of its importance to Zionists. Jewish historian David G. Dalin reports that presidents considered the Turkish embassy important to "the growing number of Zionists within the American Jewish electorate."
Every president, both Republican and Democrat, followed this precedent for the next 30 years. "During this era, the ambassadorship to Turkey came to be considered a quasi-Jewish domain," writes Dalin.[12]
By the early 1890s organizations promoting Zionism existed in New York, Chicago, Baltimore, Milwaukee, Boston, Philadelphia, and Cleveland.[13] Reports from the Zionist World Congress in Basle, which four Americans had attended, gave this movement a major stimulus, galvanizing Zionist activities in American cities that had large Jewish populations.[14]
In 1897-98 numerous additional Zionist societies were founded in the East and the Midwest. In 1898 the first annual conference of American Zionists convened in New York on the 4th of July, where they formed the Federation of American Zionists (FAZ).[15]
By 1910 the number of Zionists in the U.S. approached 20,000 and included lawyers, professors, and businessmen. Even in its infancy, when it was still considered relatively weak, Zionism was becoming a movement to which Congressmen listened, particularly in the eastern cities.[16]
The movement continued to expand, and by 1914 several additional Zionist groups had cropped up. The religious Mizrachi faction was formed in 1903, the Labor party in 1905 and Hadassah, the women's Zionist organization, in 1912.[17]
By 1922 there were 200,000 Zionists in the U.S. and by 1948 this had grown to almost a million.[18]
From early on Zionists actively pushed their agenda in the media. One Zionist organizer proudly proclaimed in 1912 "the zealous and incessant propaganda which is carried on by countless societies."[19] The Yiddish press from a very early period espoused the Zionist cause. By 1923 only one New York Yiddish newspaper failed to qualify as Zionist. Yiddish dailies reached 535,000 families in 1927.[20]
While Zionists were making major inroads in influencing Congress and the media, State Department officials were less enamored with Zionists, who they felt were trying to use the American government for a project damaging to the United States. Unlike politicians, State Department officials were not dependent on votes and campaign donations. They were charged with recommending and implementing policies beneficial to all Americans, not just one tiny sliver working on behalf of a foreign entity. In memo after memo, year after year, U.S. diplomatic and military experts pointed out that Zionism was counter to both U.S. interests and principles.[21]
While more examples will be discussed later in this article, Secretary of State Philander Knox was perhaps the first in the pattern of State Department officials rejecting Zionist advances. In 1912, when the Zionist Literary Society approached the Taft administration for an endorsement, Knox turned them down flat, noting that "problems of Zionism involve certain matters primarily related to the interests of countries other than our own."[22]
Despite that small setback in 1912, Zionists garnered a far more significant victory in the same year; one that was to have enormous consequences both internationally and in the United States and that was part of a pattern of influence that continues through today.

Louis Brandeis, Zionism, and the "Parushim"

In 1912 prominent Jewish American attorney Louis Brandeis, who was to go on to become a Supreme Court Justice, became a Zionist. Within two years he became head of the international Zionist Central Office, which had moved to America from Germany a little while before.[23]
While Brandeis is an unusually well known Supreme Court Justice, most Americans are unaware of the significant role he played in World War I and of his connection to Palestine.
Some of this work was done with Felix Frankfurter, who became a Supreme Court Justice two decades later.
In his book The Brandeis/Frankfurter Connection: The Secret Political Activities of Two Supreme Court Justices, Historian Bruce Allen Murphy describes a covert arrangement in which the two men collaborated on numerous political activities. Zionism was one of them.[24]
Murphy writes: "[I]n one of the most unique arrangements in the Court's history, Brandeis enlisted Frankfurter, then a professor at Harvard Law School, as his paid political lobbyist and lieutenant. Working together over a period of 25 years, they placed a network of disciples in positions of influence, and labored diligently for the enactment of their desired programs."[25]
Murphy continues: "This adroit use of the politically skillful Frankfurter as an intermediary enabled Brandeis to keep his considerable political endeavors hidden from the public."
Brandeis only mentioned the arrangement to one other person, Murphy writes, "another Zionist lieutenant– Court of Appeals Judge Julian Mack."
Later, when Frankfurter himself became a Supreme Court Justice, he used similar methods, "placing his own network of disciples in various agencies and working through this network for the realizations of his own goals." These included both Zionist objectives and "Frankfurter's stewardship of FDR's programs to bring the U.S. into battle against Hitler."[26]
Their activities, Murphy notes, were "part of a vast, carefully planned and orchestrated political crusade undertaken first by Brandeis through Frankfurter and then by Frankfurter on his own to accomplish extrajudicial political goals."[27]
Frankfurter joined the Harvard faculty at the age of 31 in 1914 and, Murphy writes, "for the next 25 years, shaped the minds of generations of the nation's most elite law students."[28]
Murphy reports that after becoming head of the American Zionist movement, Brandeis "created an advisory council–an inner circle of his closest advisers–and appointed Felix Frankfurter as one of its members."[29]
Former New York Times Editorial Board member and Harvard scholar Peter Grose[30], who was sympathetic to Israel, describes Brandeis's efforts on behalf of Zionism in his 1984 bookIsrael in the Mind of America.[31]
Gross writes that Brandeis recruited ambitious young men, often from Harvard, to work on the Zionist cause – and further their careers in the process. Gross reports:
"Brandeis created an elitist secret society called the Parushim, the Hebrew word for 'Pharisees' and 'separate,' which grew out of Harvard's Menorah Society. As the Harvard men spread out across the land in their professional pursuits, their interests in Zionism were kept alive by secretive exchanges and the trappings of a fraternal order. Each invited initiate underwent a solemn ceremony, swearing the oath 'to guard and to obey and to keep secret the laws and the labor of the fellowship, its existence and its aims.'"[32]
At the secret initiation ceremony, the new member was told:
"You are about to take a step which will bind you to a single cause for all your life. You will for one year be subject to an absolute duty whose call you will be impelled to heed at any time, in any place, and at any cost. And ever after, until our purpose shall be accomplished, you will be fellow of a brotherhood whose bond you will regard as greater than any other in your life–dearer than that of family, of school, of nation."[33]

'We must work silently, through education and infection'

An early recruiter explained: "An organization which has the aims we have must be anonymous, must work silently, and through education and infection rather than through force and noise." He wrote that to work openly would be "suicidal" for their objective.
Grose writes: "The members set about meeting people of influence here and there, casually, on a friendly basis. They planted suggestions for action to further the Zionist cause long before official government planners had come up with anything. For example, as early as November 1915, a leader of the Parushim went around suggesting that the British might gain some benefit from a formal declaration in support of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine."[34]
Brandeis was a close personal friend of President Woodrow Wilson and used this position to advocate for the Zionist cause, at times serving as a conduit between British Zionists and the president.
In 1916 President Wilson named Brandeis to the Supreme Court. Although Brandeis officially resigned from all his private clubs and affiliations, including his leadership of Zionism, behind the scenes he continued this Zionist work, receiving daily reports in his Supreme Court chambers and issuing orders to his loyal lieutenants.[35]
When the Zionist Organization of America (ZOA) was reorganized in 1918, Brandeis was listed as its "honorary president." However, he was more than just "honorary."
As historian Donald Neff writes, "Through his lieutenants, he remained the power behind the throne." One of these lieutenants was future Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter, another particularly well-regarded justice, and another whose Zionist activities have largely gone unnoted.[36]
Zionist membership expanded dramatically during World War I, despite the efforts of some Jewish anti-Zionists, who called the movement a "foreign, un-American, racist, and separatist phenomenon."[37]

World War I & the Balfour Declaration

Unlike some wars, most analysts consider WWI a pointless conflict that resulted from diplomatic entanglements rather than some travesty of justice or aggression. Yet, it was catastrophic to a generation of Europeans, killing 14 million people.[38]
The United States joined this unnecessary war a few years into the hostilities, costing many American lives, even though the U.S. was not party to the alliances that had drawn other nations into the fray. This even though Americans had been strongly opposed to entering the war and Woodrow Wilson had won the presidency with the slogan, "He kept us out of war."[39]
Yet, In 1917 President Wilson changed course and plunged the U.S. into a tragic and pointless European conflict in which hundreds of thousands were killed and injured.[40]Over 1,200 American citizens who opposed the war were rounded up and imprisoned, some for years.[41]
A number or reasons were publicly given for Wilson's change of heart, including Germany's submarine warfare, the sinking of the American passenger ship Lusitania, and the Zimmerman Telegram.[42] Historians also add pro-British propaganda and economic reasons to the list of causes, and most suggest that a number of factors were at play.
While Americans today are aware of these facts, few know that Zionism appears to have been one of those factors.
As diverse documentary evidence shows, Zionists pushed for the U.S. to enter the war on Britain's side as part of a deal to gain British support for their colonization of Palestine.
From the very beginning of their movement, Zionists realized that if they were to succeed in their goal of creating a Jewish state on land that was already inhabited by non-Jews, they needed backing from one of the "Great Powers."[43] They tried the Ottoman Empire, which controlled Palestine at the time, but were turned down (although they were told that Jews could settle throughout other parts of the Ottoman empire and become Turkish citizens).[44]
They then turned to Britain, which was also initially less than enthusiastic. Famous English Arabists such as Gertrude Bell pointed out that Palestine was Arab and that Jerusalem was sacred to all three major monotheistic faiths.
Future British Foreign Minister Lord George Curzon similarly stated that Palestine was already inhabited by half a million Arabs who would "not be content to be expropriated for Jewish immigrants or to act merely as hewers of wood and drawers of water for the latter."[45]
However, once the British were embroiled in World War I, and particularly during 1916, a disastrous year for the Allies,[46] Zionists were able to play a winning card. Zionist leaders promised the British government that Zionists in the U.S. would push America to enter the war on the side of the British, if the British promised to support a Jewish home in Palestine afterward.[47]
As a result, in 1917 British Foreign Minister Lord Balfour issued a letter to Zionist leader Lord Rothschild. Known as the Balfour Declaration, this letter promised that Britain would "view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people" and to "use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object."
The letter then qualified this somewhat by stating that it should be "clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine." The "non-Jewish communities" were 90 percent of Palestine's population at that time, vigorous Zionist immigration efforts having slightly expanded the percentage of Jews living in Palestine by then.[48]
The letter, while officially signed by British Foreign Minister Lord Balfour, was actually written by Leopold Amery, a British official who, it came out later, was a secret and fervent Zionist.[49]
While this letter was a less than ringing endorsement of Zionism, Zionists considered it a major breakthrough as it cracked open a door that they would later force wider and wider open.
These Balfour-WWI negotiations are referred to in various documents. For example, Samuel Landman, secretary of the World Zionist Organization, described them in a 1935 article inWorld Jewry:
"After an understanding had been arrived at between Sir Mark Sykes and [Zionists] Weizmann and Sokolow, it was resolved to send a secret message to Justice Brandeis that the British Cabinet would help the Jews to gain Palestine in return for active Jewish sympathy and for support in the USA for the Allied cause, so as to bring about a radical pro-Ally tendency in the United States."[50]
Landman wrote that once the British had agreed to help the Zionists, this information was communicated to the press, which rapidly began to favor the U.S. joining the war on the side of Britain."[51]
British Colonial Secretary Lord Cavendish also wrote about this in a 1923 memorandum to the British Cabinet, stating: "The object [of the Balfour Declaration] was to enlist the sympathies on the Allied side of influential Jews and Jewish organizations all over the world… and it is arguable that the negotiations with the Zionists…did in fact have considerable effect in advancing the date at which the United States government intervened in the war."[52]
Former British Prime Minister Lloyd George similarly referred to this deal, telling a British commission in 1935: "Zionist leaders gave us a definite promise that, if the Allies committed themselves to giving facilities for the establishment of a national home for the Jews in Palestine, they would do their best to rally Jewish sentiment and support throughout the world to the Allied cause. They kept their word."
American career Foreign Service Officer Evan M. Wilson, who had served as Minister-Consul General in Jerusalem, also described this arrangement in his book Decision on Palestine, in which he wrote that the Balfour declaration "…was given to the Jews largely for the purpose of enlisting Jewish support in the war and of forestalling a similar promise by the Central Powers [Britain's enemies in World War I]".[53]
The influence of Brandeis and other Zionists in the U.S. had enabled Zionists to form an alliance with Britain, one of the world's great powers, a remarkable achievement for a non-state group and a measure of Zionists' immense power. As historian Kolsky states, the Zionist movement was now "an important force in international politics."[54]

Paris Peace Conference 1919: Zionists defeat Christian leaders' calls for self-determination

After the war, the victors met in a peace conference and agreed to a set of peace accords that addressed, among many issues, the fate of Ottoman Empire's Middle East territories. The Allies stripped the defeated Empire of its Middle Eastern holdings and divided them between Britain and France, which were to hold them under a "mandate" system until the populations were "ready" for self-government. Britain got the mandate over Palestine.
Zionists, including Brandeis, Felix Frankfurter, the World Zionist Organization, and an American delegation, went to the peace conference to lobby for a Jewish "home"[55] in Palestine and to push for Balfour wording to be incorporated in the peace accords.[56] The official U.S. delegation to the Peace Conference also contained a number of highly placed Zionists.
Distinguished American Christians posted in the Middle East, who consistently supported self-determination, went to Paris to oppose Zionists. Numerous prominent Christian leaders in the U.S. – including two of the most celebrated pastors of their day, Harry Emerson Fosdick and Henry Sloane Coffin[57] – also opposed Zionism. However, as a pro-Israel author notes, they were "simply outgunned" by Zionists.[58]
The most prominent American in the Middle East at the time, Dr. Howard Bliss, President of Beirut's Syrian Protestant College (later to become the American University of Beirut), traveled to Paris to urge forming a commission to determine what the people of the Middle East wanted for themselves, a suggestion that was embraced by the U.S. diplomatic staff in Paris.[59]
Princeton Professor Philip Brown, in Cairo for the YMCA, provided requested reports to the U.S. State Department on what Zionism's impact would be on Palestine. He stated that it would be disastrous for both Arabs and Jews and went to Paris to lobby against it.[60]
William Westermann, director of the State Department's Western Asia Division, which covered the region, similarly opposed the Zionist position. He wrote that "[it] impinges upon the rights and the desires of most of the Arab population of Palestine." Westermann and other U.S.diplomats felt that Arab claims were much more in line with Wilson's principles of self-determination and circulated Arab material.[61]
President Wilson decided to send a commission to Palestine to investigate the situation in person. After spending six weeks in the area interviewing both Jews and Palestinians, the commission, known as the King-Crane commission, recommended against the Zionist position of unlimited immigration of Jews to make Palestine a distinctly Jewish state.[62]
The commissioners stated that the erection of a Jewish state in Palestine could be accomplished only with "the gravest trespass upon the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine," pointing out that to subject the Palestinians "to steady financial and social pressure to surrender the land, would be a gross violation of the principle [of self-determination] and of the peoples' rights…"[63]
They went on to point out that "the well-being and development" of the people in the region formed "a sacred trust," that the people should become completely free, and that the national governments "should derive their authority from the initiative and free choice of the native populations."[64]
The report stated that meetings with Jewish representatives made it clear that "the Zionists looked forward to a practically complete dispossession of the present non-Jewish inhabitants of Palestine," concluded that armed force would be required to accomplish this, and urged the Peace Conference to dismiss the Zionist proposals.[65] The commission recommended that "the project for making Palestine distinctly a Jewish commonwealth should be given up."[66]
Zionists through Brandeis dominated the situation, however, and the report was suppressed until after the Peace Accords were enacted. As a pro-Israel historian noted, "with the burial of the King-Crane Report, a major obstacle in the Zionist path disappeared."[67] The US delegation was forced to follow Zionist directives.[68]
Ultimately, the mandate over Palestine given to Britain supported the Zionist project and included the Balfour language. According to the mandate, Britain would be "responsible for putting into effect the [Balfour] declaration … in favor of the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, it being clearly understood that nothing should be done which might prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine…."[69]

Forging an "ingathering" of all Jews

The idea behind Zionism was to create a state where Jews worldwide could escape anti-Semitism.[70] Combined with this was the belief that all Jews would and should come to the Jewish state in a massive "ingathering of exiles."[71]
However, when it turned out that not enough Jews were coming of their own volition, a variety of methods were used to increase the immigration.
Zionist leader David Ben-Gurion once told a gathering of Jewish Americans: "[Zionism] consists of bringing all Jews to Israel. We appeal to the parents to help us bring their children here. Even if they decline to help, we will bring the youth to Israel; but I hope that this will not be necessary."[72]
There are various documented cases in which fanatical Zionists exploited, exaggerated, invented, or even perpetrated "anti-Semitic" incidents both to procure support and to drive Jews to immigrate to the Zionist-designated homeland. A few examples are discussed below.

Brandeis and Frankfurter vs. U.S. diplomat

One such case involved a young diplomat named Hugh Gibson, who in 1919 was nominated to be U.S. Ambassador to Poland. After he arrived in Poland, Gibson, who was highly regarded and considered particularly brilliant,[73] began to report that there were far fewer anti-Semitic incidents than Americans were led to believe. He wrote his mother: "These yarns are exclusively of foreign manufacture for anti-Polish purposes."[74]
His dispatches came to the attention of Brandeis and his protégé (and future supreme Court Justice) Felix Frankfurter, who demanded a meeting with Gibson. Gibson later wrote of their accusations:
"I had [Brandeis and Frankfurter claimed] done more mischief to the Jewish race than anyone who had lived in the last century. They said…that my reports on the Jewish question had gone around the world and had undone their work…. They finally said that I had stated that the stories of excesses against the Jews were exaggerated, to which I replied that they certainly were and I should think any Jew would be glad to know it."[75]
Frankfurter hinted that if Gibson continued these reports, Zionists would block his confirmation by the Senate.
Gibson was outraged and sent a 21-page letter to the State Department. In it he shared his suspicions that this was part of "a conscienceless and cold-blooded plan to make the condition of the Jews in Poland so bad that they must turn to Zionism for relief."
In 1923 another American diplomat in Poland, Vice Consul Monroe Kline, echoed Gibson's analysis: "It is common knowledge that Zionists are continually and constantly spreading propaganda, through their agencies over the entire world, of political and religious persecution." [76]

Zionists and Nazis

Perhaps the most extreme case of Zionist exploitation of anti-Semitism to further their cause came during the rise of Adolf Hitler. Historians have documented that Zionists sabotaged efforts to find safe havens for Jewish refugees from Nazi Germany in order to convince the world that Jews could only be safe in a Jewish state. [77]
When FDR made efforts in 1938[78] and again in 1943 [79], and the British in 1947[80], to provide havens for refugees from the Nazis, Zionists opposed these projects because they did not include Palestine.
Morris Ernst, FDR's international envoy for refugees, wrote in his memoir that when he worked to help find refuge for those fleeing Hitler, "…active Jewish leaders decried, sneered and then attacked me as if I were a traitor. At one dinner party I was openly accused of furthering this plan of freer immigration [into the U.S.] in order to undermine political Zionism… Zionist friends of mine opposed it."[81]
Ernst wrote that he found the same fanatical reaction among all the Jewish groups he approached, whose leaders, he found, were "little concerned about human blood if it is not their own."[82]
FDR finally gave up, telling Ernst: "We can't put it over because the dominant vocal Jewish leadership of America won't stand for it."[83]
Journalist Erskine B. Childers, son of a former Irish Prime Minister, wrote in the Spectator in 1960, "One of the most massively important features of the entire Palestine struggle was that Zionism deliberately arranged that the plight of the wretched survivors of Hitlerism should be a 'moral argument' which the West had to accept."
He explained that "this was done by seeing to it that Western countries did not open their doors, widely and immediately, to the inmate of the DP [displaced persons] camps."
Childers, author of several books on conflict resolution and peace-keeping who later became Secretary General of the World Federation of United Nations Associations, commented: "It is incredible that so grave and grim a campaign has received so little attention in accounts of the Palestine struggle – it was a campaign that literally shaped all subsequent history. It was done by sabotaging specific Western schemes to admit Jewish DPs."[84]
Ironically, some Zionists even noted that their role in working to bring the US into World War I, thus causing Germany's resounding defeat, was a cause of anti-Semitism in Germany.
Samuel Landman, in a Zionist pamphlet in 1936, wrote: "The fact that it was Jewish help that brought U.S.A. into the War on the side of the Allies has rankled ever since in German - especially Nazi-minds, and has contributed in no small measure to the prominence which anti-Semitism occupies in the Nazi programme."[85]

Zionist fake "hate" attacks on Iraq Jews

While Zionists wished for a massive "in-gathering of Jews" in one state, most Iraqi Jews wanted nothing to do with it, according to Iraq's then-Chief Rabbi, who stated: "Iraqi Jews will be forever against Zionism."

"Jews and Arabs have enjoyed the same rights and privileges for 1,000 years and do not regard themselves as a distinctive separate part of this nation," the rabbi declared.[86]
Zionists worked to change that by covertly attacking Iraqi Jews so as to induce them to "flee" to Israel. Zionists planted bombs in Iraqi synagogues and in an American building "in an attempt to portray the Iraqis as anti-American and to terrorize the Jews," according to author and former CIA officer Wilbur Crane Eveland.
"Soon leaflets began to appear urging Jews to flee to Israel," writes Eveland, and "... most of the world believed reports that Arab terrorism had motivated the flight of the Iraqi Jews whom the Zionists had 'rescued' really just in order to increase Israel's Jewish population."[87]
Similarly, Naeim Giladi, a Jewish-Iraqi author who later lived in Israel and the U.S., describes this program from the inside: "I write about what the first prime minister of Israel called 'cruel Zionism.' I write about it because I was part of it."
Giladi states that "Jews from Islamic lands did not emigrate willingly to Israel." In order "to force them to leave," Giladi writes, "Jews killed Jews." He goes on to say that in an effort "to buy time to confiscate ever more Arab lands, Jews on numerous occasions rejected genuine peace initiatives from their Arab neighbors." [88]

The modern Israel Lobby is born

The immediate precursor to today's pro-Israel lobby began in the early 1940s under the leadership of Rabbi Abba Hillel Silver, originally from Lithuania. He created the American Zionist Emergency Council (AZEC), which by 1943 had acquired a budget of half a million dollars at a time when a nickel bought a loaf of bread.
In addition to this money, Zionists had become influential in creating a fundraising umbrella organization, the United Jewish Appeal, in 1939[89], giving them access to the organization's gargantuan financial resources: $14 million in 1941, $150 million by 1948. This was four times more than Americans contributed to the Red Cross.[90]
With its extraordinary funding, AZEC embarked on a campaign to target every sector of American society, ordering that local committees be set up in every Jewish community in the nation. In the words of AZEC organizer Sy Kenen, it launched "a political and public relations offensive to capture the support of Congressmen, clergy, editors, professors, business and labor."[91] [92]
AZEC instructed activists to "make direct contact with your local Congressman or Senator" and to go after union members, wives and parents of servicemen, and Jewish war veterans. AZEC provided activists with form letters to use and schedules of anti-Zionist lecture tours to oppose and disrupt.
A measure of its power came in 1945 when Silver disliked a British move that would be harmful to Zionists. AZEC booked Madison Square Garden, ordered advertisements, and mailed 250,000 announcements – the first day. By the second day they had organized demonstrations in 30 cities, a letter-writing campaign, and convinced 27 U.S. Senators to give speeches.[93]
Grassroots Zionist action groups were organized with more than 400 local committees under 76 state and regional branches. AZEC funded books, articles and academic studies; millions of pamphlets were distributed. There were massive petition and letter writing campaigns. AZEC targeted college presidents and deans, managing to get more than 150 to sign one petition.[94]
Rabbi Elmer Berger, executive director of the American Council for Judaism, which opposed Zionism in the 1940s and 50s, writes in his memoirs that there was a "ubiquitous propaganda campaign reaching just about every point of political leverage in the country."[95]
The Zionist Organization of America bragged of the "immensity of our operations and their diversity" in its 48th Annual Report, stating, "We reach into every department of American life…"[96]
Berger and other anti-Zionist Jewish Americans tried to organize against "the deception and cynicism with which the Zionist machine operated," but failed to obtain anywhere near their level of funding. Among other things, would-be dissenters were afraid of "the savagery of personal attacks" anti-Zionists endured.[97]
Berger writes that when he and a colleague opposed a Zionist resolution in Congress, Emanuel Cellar, a New York Democrat who was to serve in Congress for almost 50 years, told them: "They ought to take you b…s out and shoot you."
When it was unclear that President Harry Truman would support Zionism, Cellar and a committee of Zionists told him that they had persuaded Dewey to support the Zionist policy and demanded that Truman also take this stand. Cellar reportedly pounded on Truman's table and said that if Truman did not do so, "We'll run you out of town.[98]
Jacob Javits, another well-known Congressman, this one a Republican, told a Zionist women's group: "We'll fight to death and make a Jewish State in Palestine if it's the last thing that we do."[99]
Richard Stevens, author of American Zionism and U.S. Foreign Policy, 1942-1947, reports that Zionists infiltrated the boards of several Jewish schools that they felt didn't sufficiently promote the Zionist cause. When this didn't work, Stevens writes, they would start their own pro-Zionist schools.[100]
Stevens writes that in 1943-44 the ZOA distributed over a million leaflets and pamphlets to public libraries, chaplains, community centers, educators, ministers, writers and "others who might further the Zionist cause."[101]
Alfred Lilienthal, who had worked in the State Department, served in the U.S. Army in the Middle East from 1943-45, and became a member of the anti-Zionist American Council for Judaism, reports that Zionist monthly sales of books totaled between 3,000 and 4,000 throughout 1944-45.
He reports that Zionists subsidized books by non-Jewish authors that supported the Zionist agenda. They would then promote these books jointly with commercial publishers. Several of them became best sellers.[102]

Zionists manufacture Christian support

Silver and other Zionists played a significant role in creating Christian support for Zionism, a project Brandeis encouraged.[103]
Secret Zionist funds, eventually reaching $150,000 in 1946, were used to revive an elitist Protestant group, the American Palestine Committee. This group had originally been founded in 1932 by Emanuel Neumann, a member of the Executive of the Zionist Organization. The objective was to organize a group of prominent (mainly non-Jewish) Americans in moral and political support of Zionism. Frankfurter was one of the main speakers at its launch.[104]
Silver's headquarters issued a directive saying,"In every community an American Christian Palestine Committee must be immediate organized."[105]
Author Peter Grose reports that the Christian committee's operations "were hardly autonomous. Zionist headquarters thought nothing of placing newspaper advertisements on the clergymen's behalf without bothering to consult them in advance, until one of the committee's leaders meekly asked at least for prior notice before public statements were made in their name."[106]
AZEC formed another group among clergymen, the Christian Council on Palestine. An internal AZEC memo stated that the aim of both groups was to "crystallize the sympathy of Christian America for our cause."[107]
By the end of World War II the Christian Council on Palestine had grown to 3,000 members and the American Palestine Committee boasted a membership of 6,500 public figures, including senators, congressmen, cabinet members, governors, state officers, mayors, jurists, clergymen, educators, writers, publishers, and civic and industrial leaders.
Historian Richard Stevens explains that Christian support was largely gained by exploiting their wish to help people in need. Steven writes that Zionists would proclaim "the tragic plight of refugees fleeing from persecution and finding no home," thus linking the refugee problem with Palestine as allegedly the only solution.[108]
Stevens writes that the reason for this strategy was clear: "…while many Americans might not support the creation of a Jewish state, traditional American humanitarianism could be exploited in favor of the Zionist cause through the refugee problems."[109]
Few if any of these Christian supporters had any idea that the creation of the Jewish state would entail a massive expulsion of hundreds of thousands of non-Jews, who made up the large majority of Palestine's population, creating a new and much longer lasting refugee problem.
Nor did they learn that during and after Israel's founding 1947-49 war, Zionist forces attacked a number of Christian sites. Donald Neff, former Time Magazine Jerusalem bureau chief and author of five books on Israel-Palestine, reports in detail on Zionist attacks on Christian sites in May 1948, the month of Israel's birth.
Neff tells us that a group of Christian leaders complained that month that Zionists had killed and wounded hundreds of people, including children, refugees and clergy, at Christian churches and humanitarian institutions.
For example, the group charged that "'many children were killed or wounded' by Jewish shells on the Convent of Orthodox Copts…; eight refugees were killed and about 120 wounded at the Orthodox Armenian Convent…; and that Father Pierre Somi, secretary to the Bishop, had been killed and two wounded at the Orthodox Syrian Church of St. Mark."
"The group's statement said Arab forces had abided by their promise to respect Christian institutions, but that the Jews had forcefully occupied Christian structures and been indiscriminate in shelling churches," reports Neff. He quotes a Catholic priest: "'Jewish soldiers broke down the doors of my church and robbed many precious and sacred objects. Then they threw the statues of Christ down into a nearby garden.' [The priest] added that Jewish leaders had reassured that religious buildings would be respected, 'but their deeds do not correspond to their words.'"
After Zionist soldiers invaded and looted a convent in Tiberias, the U.S. Consulate sent a bitter dispatch back to the State Department complaining of "the Jewish attitude in Jerusalem towards Christian institutions."

Zionist Colonization Efforts in Palestine

As early Zionists in the U.S. and elsewhere pushed for the creation of a Jewish state, Zionists in Palestine simultaneously tried to clear the land of Muslim and Christian inhabitants and replace them with Jewish immigrants.
This was a tall order, as Muslims and Christians accounted for more than 95 percent of the population of Palestine.[110] Zionists planned to try first to buy up the land until the previous inhabitants had emigrated; failing this, they would use violence to force them out. This dual strategy was discussed in various written documents cited by numerous Palestinian and Israeli historians.[111]
As this colonial project grew, the indigenous Palestinians reacted with occasional bouts of violence; Zionists had anticipated this since people usually resist being expelled from their land.[112]
When the buyout effort was able to obtain only a few percent of the land, Zionists created a number of terrorist groups to fight against both the Palestinians and the British. Terrorist and future Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin later bragged that Zionists had brought terrorism both to the Middle East and to the world at large.[113]
By the eve of the creation of Israel, the Zionist immigration and buyout project had increased the Jewish population of Palestine to 30 percent and land ownership from 1 percent to approximately 6 percent.
This was in 1947, when the British at last announced that they would end their control of Palestine. Britain turned the territory's fate over to the United Nations.
Since a founding principle of the UN was "self-determination of peoples," one would have expected to the UN to support fair, democratic elections in which inhabitants could create their own independent country.[114]
Instead, Zionists pushed for a General Assembly resolution to give them a disproportionate 55 percent of Palestine.[115][116] (While they rarely announced this publicly, their stated plan was to later take the rest of Palestine.[117])

U.S. Officials Oppose Creation of Israel

The U.S. State Department opposed this partition plan strenuously, considering Zionism contrary to both fundamental American principles and U.S. interests.
For example, the director of the State Department's Office of Near Eastern and African Affairs consistently recommended against supporting a Jewish state in Palestine. The director, named Loy Henderson, warned that the creation of such a state would go against locals' wishes, imperil U.S. interests and violate democratic principles.
Henderson emphasized that the U.S. would lose moral standing in the world if it supported Zionism:
"At the present time the United States has a moral prestige in the Near and Middle East unequaled by that of any other great power. We would lose that prestige and would be likely for many years to be considered as a betrayer of the high principles which we ourselves have enunciated during the period of the [second world] war."[118]
When Zionists began pushing the partition plan in the UN, Henderson recommended strongly against supporting their proposal, saying that such a partition would have to be implemented by force and was "not based on any principle." He warned that partition "would guarantee that the Palestine problem would be permanent and still more complicated in the future…"
Henderson elaborated further on how plans to partition Palestine would violate American and UN principles:
"...[Proposals for partition] are in definite contravention to various principles laid down in the [UN] Charter as well as to principles on which American concepts of Government are based. These proposals, for instance, ignore such principles as self-determination and majority rule. They recognize the principle of a theocratic racial state and even go so far in several instances as to discriminate on grounds of religion and race…"[119]
Zionists attacked Henderson virulently, calling him "anti-Semitic," demanding his resignation, and threatening his family. They pressured the State Department to transfer him elsewhere; one analyst describes this as "the historic game of musical chairs" in which officials who recommended Middle East policies "consistent with the nation's interests" were moved on.[120]
In 1948 Truman sent Henderson to the slopes of the Himalayas, as Ambassador to Nepal (then officially under India). (In recent years, at times virtually every State Department country desk has been directed by a Zionist.)
But Henderson was far from alone in making his recommendations. He wrote that his views were not only those of the entire Near East Division but were shared by "nearly every member of the Foreign Service or of the [State] Department who has worked to any appreciable extent on Near Eastern problems."[121]
He wasn't exaggerating. Official after official and agency after agency opposed Zionism.
In 1947 the CIA reported that Zionist leadership was pursuing objectives that would endanger both Jews and "the strategic interests of the Western powers in the Near and Middle East."[122]
Ambassador Henry F. Grady, who has been called "America's top diplomatic soldier for a critical period of the Cold War," headed a 1946 commission aimed at coming up with a solution for Palestine. Grady later wrote about the Zionist lobby and its damaging effect on U.S. national interests.
"I have had a good deal of experience with lobbies but this group started where those of my experience had ended," wrote Grady. "I have headed a number of government missions but in no other have I ever experienced so much disloyalty…. [I]n the United States, since there is no political force to counterbalance Zionism, its campaigns are apt to be decisive."[123]
Grady concluded that without Zionist pressure, the U.S. would not have had "the ill-will with the Arab states, which are of such strategic importance in our 'cold war' with the soviets."[124]
Former Undersecretary of State Dean Acheson also opposed Zionism. Acheson's biographer writes that Acheson "worried that the West would pay a high price for Israel." Another author, John Mulhall, records Acheson's warning of the danger for U.S. interests:
"...to transform [Palestine] into a Jewish State capable of receiving a million or more immigrants would vastly exacerbate the political problem and imperil not only American but all Western interests in the Near East."[125]
The head of the State Department's Division of Near Eastern Affairs, Gordon P. Merriam, warned against the partition plan on moral grounds:
"U.S. support for partition of Palestine as a solution to that problem can be justified only on the basis of Arab and Jewish consent. Otherwise we should violate the principle of self-determination which has been written into the Atlantic Charter, the declaration of the United Nations, and the United Nations Charter – a principle that is deeply embedded in our foreign policy. Even a United Nations determination in favor of partition would be, in the absence of such consent, a stultification and violation of UN's own charter."[126]
Merriam added that without consent, "bloodshed and chaos" would follow, a tragically accurate prediction.
An internal State Department memorandum accurately predicted how Israel would be born through armed aggression masked as defense:
"...the Jews will be the actual aggressors against the Arabs. However, the Jews will claim that they are merely defending the boundaries of a state which were traced by the UN.… In the event of such Arab outside aid the Jews will come running to the Security Council with the claim that their state is the object of armed aggression and will use every means to obscure the fact that it is their own armed aggression against the Arabs inside which is the cause of Arab counter-attack."[127]
And American Vice Consul William J. Porter foresaw one last outcome of the "partition" plan: that no Arab state would actually ever come to be in Palestine.[128]

Truman Accedes to Pro-Israel Lobby

President Harry Truman, however, ignored this advice and chose instead to support the Zionist partition plan. Truman's political advisor, Clark Clifford, believed that the Jewish vote and contributions were essential to winning the upcoming presidential election, and that supporting the partition plan would garner that support. (Truman's opponent, Dewey, took similar stands for similar reasons.)
Truman's Secretary of State George Marshall, the renowned World War II General and author of the Marshall Plan, was furious to see electoral considerations taking precedence over policies based on national interest. He condemned what he called a "transparent dodge to win a few votes," which would make "[t]he great dignity of the office of President seriously diminished."[129]
Marshall wrote that the counsel offered by Clifford "was based on domestic political considerations, while the problem which confronted us was international. I said bluntly that if the President were to follow Mr. Clifford's advice and if in the elections I were to vote, I would vote against the President.…"[130]
Secretary of Defense James Forrestal also tried, unsuccessfully, to oppose the Zionists. He was outraged that Truman's Mideast policy was based on what he called "squalid political purposes," asserting that "United States policy should be based on United States national interests and not on domestic political considerations."[131]
Forrestal represented the general Pentagon view when he said that "no group in this country should be permitted to influence our policy to the point where it could endanger our national security."[132]
A report by the National Security Council warned that the Palestine turmoil was acutely endangering the security of the United States. A CIA report stressed the strategic importance of the Middle East and its oil resources.
Similarly, George F. Kennan, the State Department's Director of Policy Planning, issued a top-secret document on January 19, 1947 that outlined the enormous damage done to the U.S.by the partition plan ("Report by the Policy Planning Staff on Position of the United States with Respect to Palestine").[133]
Kennan cautioned that "important U.S. oil concessions and air base rights" could be lost through U.S.support for partition and warned that the USSR stood to gain by the partition plan.
Kermit Roosevelt, Teddy Roosevelt's nephew and a legendary intelligence agent, was another who was deeply disturbed by events, noting:
"The process by which Zionist Jews have been able to promote American support for the partition of Palestine demonstrates the vital need of a foreign policy based on national rather than partisan interests…. Only when the national interests of the United States, in their highest terms, take precedence over all other considerations, can a logical, farseeing foreign policy be evolved. No American political leader has the right to compromise American interests to gain partisan votes…"[134]
Kermit Roosevelt went on:
"The present course of world crisis will increasingly force upon Americans the realization that their national interests and those of the proposed Jewish state in Palestine are going to conflict. It is to be hoped that American Zionists and non-Zionists alike will come to grips with the realities of the problem."
Truman wrote in his memoirs: "I do not think I ever had as much pressure and propaganda aimed at the White House as I had in this instance." There were now about a million dues-paying Zionists in the U.S.[135]
Then, as now, in addition to unending pressure there was financial compensation, Truman reportedly receiving a suitcase full of money from Zionists while on his train campaign around the country.[136]

Personal influences on Truman

One person key in such Zionist financial connections to Truman was Abraham Feinberg, a wealthy businessman who was later to play a similar role with Kennedy and Johnson.[137]
While many Americans have been aware of Truman's come-from-behind win over Dewey, few people know about the critical role of Feinberg and the Zionist lobby in financing Truman's victory. After Feinberg financed Truman's famous whistle-stop campaign tour, Truman credited him with his presidential win.[138] (When the CIA later discovered that Feinberg also helped to finance illegal gun-running to Zionist groups, the Truman administration looked the other way.[139])
An individual inside the U.S.government who worked to influence policy was David K. Niles, executive assistant first to FDR and then to Truman. Niles, according to author Alfred Lilienthal, was "a member of a select group of confidential advisers with an often-quoted passion for anonymity. Niles… though occasionally publicized as Mr. Truman's Mystery Man, remained totally unknown to the public."[140]
Behind the scenes Niles was regularly briefed by the head of the Washington Office of the Zionist Organization of America (ZOA).
When it was discovered that top-secret information was being passed on to the Israeli government, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General Omar Bradley told Truman he had to choose between Bradley and Niles. Not long after, Niles resigned and went on a visit to Israel.[141]
Another who helped influence Truman was his old Kansas City friend and business partner, Eddie Jacobson, active in B'nai B'rith and "a passionate believer in Jewish nationalism," who was able to procure Zionist access to the President at key times.[142] Truman called Jacobson's input of "decisive importance."[143]
Still another was Sam Rosenman, a political advisor to Truman, who screened State Department memos sent to Truman. A longtime diplomat reports that one of the department's memoranda was returned, unopened, with a notation, "President Truman already knows your views and doesn't need this."[144]
Evan M. Wilson, a career diplomat who had been U.S. Consul General in Jerusalem, later wrote that Truman had been largely motivated by "domestic political considerations."[145] At least one of Truman's key policy speeches was drafted primarily by the Washington representative of the Jewish Agency. [146]
Acting Secretary of State James E. Webb in a dispatch to Secretary of State Acheson noted the obvious: "Past record suggests Israel has had more influence with U.S. than has U.S. with Israel."[147]

Pro-Israel Pressure on General Assembly Members

When it was clear that, despite U.S. support, the partition recommendation did not have the two-thirds support of the UN General Assembly required to pass, Zionists pushed through a delay in the vote. They then used this period to pressure numerous nations into voting for the recommendation. A number of people later described this campaign.
Robert Nathan, a Zionist who had worked for the U.S.government and who was particularly active in the Jewish Agency, wrote afterward, "We used any tools at hand," such as telling certain delegations that the Zionists would use their influence to block economic aid to any countries that did not vote for partition.[148]
Another Zionist proudly stated:
"Every clue was meticulously checked and pursued. Not the smallest or the remotest of nations, but was contacted and wooed. Nothing was left to chance."
Financier and longtime presidential advisor Bernard Baruch told France it would lose U.S. aid if it voted against partition. Top White House executive assistant David Niles organized pressure on Liberia through rubber magnate Harvey Firestone, who told the Liberian president that if Liberia did not vote in favor of partition, Firestone would revoke his planned expansion in the country. Liberia voted yes.[149]
Latin American delegates were told that the Pan-American highway construction project would be more likely if they voted yes. Delegates' wives received mink coats (the wife of the Cuban delegate returned hers); Costa Rica's President Jose Figueres reportedly received a blank checkbook. Haiti was promised economic aid if it would change its original vote opposing partition.
Longtime Zionist Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter, along with ten senators and Truman domestic advisor Clark Clifford, threatened the Philippines (seven bills were pending on the Philippines in Congress).
Before the vote on the plan, the Philippine delegate had given a passionate speech against partition, defending the inviolable "primordial rights of a people to determine their political future and to preserve the territorial integrity of their native land..."[150]
The delegate went on to say that he could not believe that the General Assembly would sanction a move that would place the world "back on the road to the dangerous principles of racial exclusiveness and to the archaic documents of theocratic governments."
Twenty-four hours later, after intense Zionist pressure, the Philippine delegate voted in favor of partition.
The U.S. delegation to the U.N. was so outraged when Truman insisted that they support partition that the State Department director of U.N. Affairs was sent to New York to prevent the delegates from resigning en masse.[151]
On Nov 29, 1947 the partition resolution, 181, passed. While this resolution is frequently cited, it was of limited (if any) legal impact. General Assembly resolutions, unlike Security Council resolutions, are not binding on member states. For this reason, the resolution requested that "[t]he Security Council take the necessary measures as provided for in the plan for its implementation,"[152] which the Security Council never did. Legally, the General Assembly Resolution was a "recommendation" and did not create any states.
What it did do, however, was increase the fighting in Palestine. Within months, the Zionists had forced out over 413,000 people. Zionist military units had stealthily been preparing for war before the UN vote and had acquired massive weaponry, some of it through a widespread network of illicit gunrunning operations in the U.S. under a number of front groups.
On May 15th Zionists announced the creation of their new state. They decided to name it "Israel," and chose not to set its boundaries or to write a Constitution (a situation that continues through today). Five Arab armies joined the fighting, but, contrary to general perceptions of this war, Zionist/Israeli forces outnumbered the combined Arab and Palestinian combatants.[153]
The UN eventually managed to create a temporary and very partial ceasefire, during which Israel obtained even more armaments. A Swedish UN mediator, Count Folke Bernadotte, who had previously rescued thousands of Jews from the Nazis, was dispatched to negotiate an end to the violence. Israeli assassins killed him and Israel continued what it was to call its "war of independence."[154]
At the end of this war, through ruthless implementation of plans to push out as many non-Jews as possible, Israel came into existence on 78 percent of Palestine.
But let us take a closer look at the violence that followed the UN recommendation.

Massacres and the Conquest of Palestine

The passing of the partition resolution in November 1947 triggered the violence that State Department and Pentagon analysts had predicted and for which Zionists had been preparing. There were at least 33 massacres of Palestinian villages, half of them before a single Arab army joined the conflict.[155] Zionist forces were better equipped and had more men under arms than their opponents[156] and by the end of Israel's "War of Independence" over 750,000 Palestinian men, women, and children were ruthlessly expelled.[157] Zionists had succeeded in the first half of their goal: Israel, the self-described Jewish State, had come into existence.
The massacres were carried out by Zionist forces, including Zionist militias that had engaged in terrorist attacks in the area for years preceding the partition resolution.[158]
Descriptions of the massacres, by both Palestinians and Israelis, are nightmarish. An Israeli eyewitness reported that at the village of al-Dawayima:
"The children they killed by breaking their heads with sticks. There was not a house without dead….One soldier boasted that he had raped a woman and then shot her."[159]
One Palestinian woman testified that a man shot her nine-month-pregnant sister and then cut her stomach open with a butcher knife.[160]
One of the better-documented massacres occurred in a small, neutral Palestinian village called Deir Yassin in April 1948 – before any Arab armies had joined the war. A Swiss Red Cross representative was one of the first to arrive on the scene, where he found 254 dead, including 145 women, 35 of them pregnant.[161]
Witnesses reported that the attackers lined up families – men, women, grandparents and children, even infants – and shot them.[162]
An eyewitness and future colonel in the Israeli military later wrote of the militia members: "They didn't know how to fight, but as murderers they were pretty good."[163]
The Red Cross representative who found the bodies at Deir Yassin arrived in time to see some of the killing in action. He wrote in his diary that Zionist militia members were still entering houses with guns and knives when he arrived. He saw one young Jewish woman carrying a blood-covered dagger and saw another stab an old couple in their doorway. The representative wrote that the scene reminded him of S.S. troops he had seen in Athens.
Richard Catling, British assistant inspector general for the criminal division, reported on "sexual atrocities" committed by Zionist forces. "Many young school girls were raped and later slaughtered," he reported. "Old women were also molested."[164]
The Deir Yassin attack was perpetrated by two Zionist militias and coordinated with the main Zionist forces, whose elite unit participated in part of the operation.[165] The heads of the two militias, Menachem Begin and Ytzakh Shamir, later became Prime Ministers of Israel.
Begin, head of the Irgun militia, sent the following message to his troops about their victory at Deir Yassin:
"Accept my congratulations on this splendid act of conquest. Convey my regards to all the commanders and soldiers. We shake your hands. We are all proud of the excellent leadership and the fighting spirit in this great attack. We stand to attention in memory of the slain. We lovingly shake the hands of the wounded. Tell the soldiers: you have made history in Israel with your attack and your conquest. Continue thus until victory. As in Deir Yassin, so everywhere, we will attack and smite the enemy. God, God, Thou has chosen us for conquest."[166]
Approximately six months later, Begin (who had been involved in a number of other terrorist acts, including blowing up the King David Hotel[167] in Jerusalem, killing 91 people) came on a tour of America. The tour's sponsors included famous playwright Ben Hecht, a fervent Zionist who applauded Irgun violence,[168] and eventually included 11 Senators, 12 governors, 70 Congressmen, 17 Justices, and numerous other public officials.[169]
The State Department, fully aware of his violent activities in Palestine, tried to reject Begin's visa but was overruled by Truman.[170]
Begin later proudly admitted his terrorism in an interview for American television. When the interviewer asked him, "How does it feel, in the light of all that's going on, to be the father of terrorism in the Middle East?" Begin proclaimed, "In the Middle East? In all the world!"[171]

Terrorists set up U.S. front groups

a. Irgun Delegation: Hillel Kook as "Peter Bergson"

A covert Irgun delegation operated in the U.S. from the late 1930s through 1948 under a half dozen front organizations, including the "Emergency Committee to Save European Jewry" and "American Friends of a Jewish Palestine."[172]
The main leader was Hillel Kook, the senior Irgun officer working outside Palestine. Upon coming to the U.S. he assumed the alias "Peter Bergson," and the group is often called the "Bergson Boys."
The other leader was Yitshaq Ben-Ami (father of Jeremy Ben-Ami, founder of today's lobbying organization J-Street). Also closely involved was Eri Jobotinskin, son of right-wing Zionist leader Vladimir Zeev Jabotinsky.[173] Also associated with the group was Meir Kahane, who twenty years later founded the violent Jewish Defense League (JDL).[174]
Though historians have documented that their purpose in coming to the U.S. was to support Irgun activities in Palestine, this was unknown to the multitude of high-level supporters the group eventually acquired. These supporters included Eleanor Roosevelt, Harry Truman, Dorothy Parker, Herbert Hoover, Will Rogers, Jr., Labor leader William Green, U.S. Solicitor General Fowler Harper, and U.S. Interior Secretary Harold Ickes.[175]
The FBI, however, suspected this illegal fundraising. It investigated the front groups several times, but largely bungled the investigations and failed to produce evidence. As author Rafael Medoff divulges: "In fact, according to Bergson lobbyist Baruch Rabinowitz, funds raised by the Bergsonites in the United States were indeed secretly transferred to the Irgun; the methods of transfer were simply so well concealed that the FBI could not uncover them."[176]
Their biographer, Israeli professor Judith Baumel, writes that the Irgun Delegation quickly set about "integrating themselves into the social and political culture of their temporary home." They quickly grasped that "public mood, molded to a large extent by propaganda and public relations [was] a dominant force in the American system of direct representation" and they soon became masters at media manipulation.[177]
Thus, besides their secret funneling of money for terrorist activities in Palestine against Palestinians, the British, and members of the Jewish community[178] the Irgun Delegation engaged in numerous public activities pushing for the Jewish state in Palestine. They lobbied Congress and the White House, organized a march on Washington, D.C. of 500 Rabbis, and placed full-page ads in newspapers around the U.S.
They also produced a pageant called "We Will Never Die!" celebrating the Jewish contribution to Western civilization, written by Ben Hecht, directed by Moss Hart, featuring music by Kurt Weil, and starring Edward G. Robinson. The cast also included Dean Martin, Frank Sinatra, Leonard Bernstein, one hundred Yeshiva students from Brooklyn, and fifty Orthodox rabbis.[179] Forty thousand attended the extravaganza's New York performances. It then went on to play in most of America's largest cities.[180] The group produced several other plays and rallies, one of which starred a young Marlon Brando and brought in $1 million.
Baumel reports that an American Jewish leader whohad emigrated to Palestine wrote to Eleanor Roosevelt asking her to withdraw support from the Brando production, because its profits "were being used to fund terrorist activity."[181]
During WWII, the various organizations created by the Irgun Delegation frequently pushed for rescuing European Jews from the Nazis, but one of their major demands was for the creation of a "Jewish Army of Stateless and Palestinian Jews." The idea was that the Allies should create a Jewish army to fight alongside them against the Nazis.
However, certain right-wing Zionists had sought this army even before the Nazi holocaust began, and some analysts argue it was a plan with a mixed agenda. Historian William Rubinstein writes, "It is rather difficult to believe that Bergson's implausible proposal did not have far more to do with creating the nucleus of a Jewish Palestinian force, to be used against the British and the Arabs, than with saving Europe's Jews from the Nazis."[182]
One supporter, best-selling author Pierre van Paassen, resigned when he learned that various Delegation-spawned "committees" to save Jews were all being run by the same small group, and that they were tied to horrific terrorist actions in Palestine.
He declared that he did not believe they had the means or intention to truly save Jews from the Nazis, writing: "To speak bluntly, that 'Committee to Save the Jewish People of Europe" is a hoax, in my judgment a very cruel hoax perpetrated on the American public, Jewish and non-Jewish alike.[183]
Some at the time and since have considered the Delegation's efforts heroic, but critics point out that it did not manage to rescue any Jews during the Nazi holocaust [184], though it may have helped contribute to the pressure on President Roosevelt to later create a War Refugee Board.
The group had numerous opponents among Jewish leaders, both Zionist and anti-Zionist. Some, unlike the general public, were aware of their secret connections to Menachem Begin's Irgun, whose violent tactics many found abhorrent, particularly when they targeted the British at a time that England was fighting to defeat Hitler – the most effective way, many felt, to rescue Jews.
Biographer Baumel writes that the more mainstream Zionist establishment was disturbed by "the clandestine nature of the committee's formation and the absence of any hint as to its intention."[185]
This division among Zionists was largely hidden from view, however, as the Delegation aimed for the American man in the street, using tantalizing slogans, illustrated advertisements, and "seductive curiosity-whetting gimmicks." Baumel notes that the Irgun Delegation's primary triumph was to understand "the power of Madison Avenue."[186]
Author Rafael Medoff describes the importance of that understanding: "[T]he violent behavior of the Jewish forces in Palestine would have surely undermined American public sympathy for the Zionist cause, if not for the efforts of the Jewish underground's American friends."[187] This public relations crusade was critical in building American support.
After WWII, the Delegation became involved in the sometimes secretive, sometimes very public movement of European Jews to Palestine. One purpose, Ben-Ami explained, was to build up the Irgun terror forces: "We must build a network in Europe capable of moving thousands of Irgun soldiers to Palestine..."[188] This intention, however, was not announced to the general public.
Bergson-Kook's uncle was Rabbi Avraham Yitzhak Kook, often known as "Rabbi Kook the Elder." Rabbi Kook was originally from Eastern Europe, had worked toward the Balfour Declaration in Britain, and eventually became the "Chief Rabbi of Palestine."
Perhaps his most significant accomplishment was to devise an ideology that merged a kabbalistic version of religious Judaism with political Zionism, founding an extremist religious Zionism that continues in existence today.[189]
The Kabbala teaches that non-Jews are the embodiment of Satan, and that the world was created solely for the sake of Jews.[190] Rabbi Kook, who achieved saintly status among his followers in Israel and the U.S., stated: "The difference between a Jewish soul and souls of non-Jews… is greater and deeper than the difference between a human soul and the souls of cattle."[191]
In addition to spanning the Jewish religious-secular continuum, the Irgun Delegation spanned the political spectrum from left to right. Baumel writes that it "evinced many of the unique characteristics of Eastern European protofascism" while also forming partnerships with communists and Jews who belonged to left-wing American groups.[192]

b. Rabbi Korff and the "Political Action Committee for Palestine"

Another terrorist front group and PR machine was formed by an Orthodox rabbi named Baruch Korff [193], who achieved tremendous mainstream success and became very well known in the U.S. His underground activities, on the other hand, were considerably less known.
Korff had earlier been executive director of one of the Bergson group's entities[194], before starting his own splinter group, the Political Action Committee for Palestine (PACP). Korff used many of the same tactics as Kook, as well as building close relationships with various active and former Congressmen.
Korff combined these strong political connections and PR machinations to extraordinary, if duplicitous, effect. One example, which historian Rafael Medoff calls "a particularly well choreographed stunt," involved a former Republican Congressman, Joseph Clark Baldwin of New York.
At Korff's request, Baldwin, who had friendly relations with President Truman, staged a highly publicized visit to England and Palestine in late 1946.[195]
Korff then composed "Baldwin's" official report of the visit, which called on England and the United States to recognize Palestine "as an independent democracy of which homeless European Jews shall be considered citizens."[196]
Then, immediately after writing Baldwin's report, Korff put out a press release criticizing one aspect of the report, in order to make it appear that Baldwin "was not a puppet of the PACP but rather had visited London and Jerusalem with an open mind and returned with his own conclusions."[197]
Korff was also involved in a terrorist plot that was foiled at the last minute by a young American World War II aviator who, following the war, had gone to Paris to study art.
In 1946, British intelligence uncovered conspiracies by Jewish terrorists, including Korff, to assassinate the British foreign minister. Details were heavily censored from the public for many years, but in 2003 the British security files were released.[198]
In 1947, Korff and his group hatched a plan to drop bombs on the British foreign office, along with 10,000 threatening leaflets. "[W]e will carry the war to the very heart of the [British] Empire," the leaflets were to read. "We will strike with all the bitterness and fury of our servitude and bondage. People of England, press your government to quit Eretz Israel now. Demand that your sons and daughters return home, or you may never see them again."[199]
The group tried to recruit a young American aviator in Paris, promising him "lucrative jobs" after the mission was completed.[200] The aviator, Reginald Gilbert, had flown 136 combat missions over Europe during WWII, shooting down three German planes and damaging seven.

Gilbert pretended to agree to the plot, but instead informed the American Embassy, and then worked with Scotland Yard and the Paris police to have the would-be assassins arrested. French police, who said they "feared for the flier's life if the Stern gang ever caught up with him," flew him to London until he could return to the U.S.[201] (The Stern gang was another Zionist paramilitary group known for its terroristic violence against the British, Palestinians, and even other Jewish individuals that they designated enemies. It was considered even more ruthless than the Irgun, from which it had broken off.[202])
Almost no one remembers this plot today, but it was headline news at the time in newspapers across the United States[203]. While some news accounts revealed the full plot, reports quickly stopped mentioning the bombs and recounted only the plan to drop the threatening leaflets. Someone was leaning on spokespeople or reporters to make sure only part of the story got out.
But they couldn't keep Gilbert quiet. In a first-hand account of the plot published by the New York Herald Tribune, Gilbert confirmed that the group had planned much more than a leaflet drop. The first idea had been to drop bombs on Britain's Parliament, but the target was subsequently changed to the Foreign Ministry, "because Korff held a grudge against that office for refusing him a visa to Palestine."
In his article, Gilbert recounted a conversation he had with Korff while playing along with the plot, which he continued to do at the direction of the Paris police. He says he told Korff fog might prevent them from locating their exact target, to which Korff replied that they could just drop the bombs anywhere on London. When Gilbert protested that innocent people might be killed, Korff replied, "They are British, so they are our enemy,'" he reported.[204]
After being arrested, Korff came up with various stories. At one point he claimed that Gilbert had been the guilty party. Next, he and Hillel Kook (using his alias "Peter Bergson") claimed that the plot was a British "frameup" and that Gilbert was a British agent[205]. In other versions, Korff claimed that the "British Nazi Party" fabricated the story[206], a claim picked up by the British weekly News Review.[207]
According to the London Times, Korff later said that "millions of dollars had been subscribed by private American sources to fund the purchase of the aircraft."[208]
Powerful allies proclaimed that Korff was innocent and brought pressure on the State Department to help him.[209] These allies included Korff's contacts in Congress and his father, Rabbi Jacob Korff, who was leader of the Boston Jewish Rabbinate and an important enough man that the Massachusetts governor and Boston mayor attended his funeral, which was accompanied by a 7,000-person march[210]. By November 22nd all charges were dropped.
In 1948, Korff had the temerity to publish a large advertisement in the New York Post calling a State Department policy against enforcing the Partition of Palestine "pure and simple anti-Semitism… plain everyday anti-Semitism, incorporated in the hearts and minds of those who govern free America."[211]
Later, Korff became a close friend and fervent supporter of President Richard Nixon, who called him "my rabbi."[212] Korff is reported to have influenced Nixon's strong support for Israel and efforts to allow Soviet Jews to emigrate.[213] It is unknown whether Nixon was fully informed on Korff's past.
Korff served as a chaplain for the Massachusetts Department of Mental Health for 21 years.[214] He later acted as a consultant to Brown University in conjunction with the school's acquisition of his archives.[215] According to the London Independent, Korff had many supporters in high places in Israel, including Prime Ministers Yitzhak Rabin and Golda Meir.[216]

The "Sonneborn Institute"

A third collective of front groups was the secret American arm of the main Zionist paramilitary in Palestine, the Haganah.[217] Known as the "Sonneborn Institute," it was founded by an American, Rudolf G. Sonneborn, in conjunction David Ben Gurion, who led Zionist forces in Palestine.[218]
Sonneborn, scion of a wealthy German-Jewish family from Baltimore, had met Ben Gurion in 1919. Sonneborn had traveled to the Versailles peace conference as secretary of a Zionist delegation, at the behest of Supreme Court Justice Brandeis (a family friend), and afterward went on a tour of Palestine.[219]
In 1945, Sonneborn, scion of a wealthy German-Jewish family from Baltimore, and Ben Gurion hosted a meeting of 17 well-connected guests at Sonneborn's Manhattan penthouse. Ben Gurion informed the group that their purpose was to form an underground organization to raise money and support "for purposes which could not be publicized or even fully disclosed."
The guests came from Los Angeles, Toronto, Miami, Birmingham, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Cleveland, Columbus, Minneapolis, St. Louis, Newark, New Haven and New York. One was a rabbi, five were lawyers, and the others were highly successful businessmen. The organization was to have representatives in at least 35 to 40 industry groups, and in one month alone there were meetings in Memphis, Ohio, New Jersey, Cedar Rapids, Iowa City, Baton Rouge, Dallas, Washington DC, and 40 more were scheduled.
The network they set up had members all over the country and representatives in dozens of industry associations, and it held 48 meetings around the U.S. within one month alone. They created a variety of front groups for running weaponry, from machine guns to B-17s.[220]They also organized Zionist youth groups, whose young members sometimes helped load guns onto boats headed for Palestine.[221]
U.S. authorities tried to stop these illegal and extremely damaging activities. In 1948, the Director of Central Intelligence filed a top-secret report with the Secretary of Defense about the Zionist arms trafficking. He warned, "U.S. National security is unfavorably affected by these developments and it could be seriously jeopardized by continued illicit traffic in the 'implements of war.'"[222]
But, like the other Zionist front groups discussed above, the Sonneborn Institute had friends in high places. Author Grant Smith reports that, under Truman, "Haganah operative groups active in arms trafficking within the U.S., like the terrorist charges, would only be lightly investigated and seldom prosecuted."[223]

Infiltrating displaced person's camps in Europe to funnel people to Palestine

A similar underground campaign was operating in Europe. Zionist cadres infiltrated displaced person's camps that had been set up to house refugees displaced during WWII. These infiltrators tried secretly to funnel people to Palestine. When it turned out that most didn't want to go to Palestine, they worked to convince them – sometimes by force.
The fact was that Zionists needed more people to go to Palestine. As Ben Gurion stated in 1944: [T]he essence of Zionism is one of a populating endeavor, to populate [Israel] with multitudes of Jews."[224]
Israeli professor Yosef Grodzinsky explains that Zionists were looking for "chomer 'enoshi tov (good human materials, a phrase Zionist organizers frequently used). Convincing Jews to uproot themselves and move to Palestine proved to be a formidable task: When life is good, people tend to stay where they are. Candidates for Palestine immigration therefore had to be Jews whose life was not good. Post-Holocaust DPs [Displaced Persons], became a human reserve of great immigration potential, hence a prime target for the Zionists…"[225]
A senior Mossad commander stated: "We must not think that thousand upon thousands will come knocking at the country's gates once they open. The Zionist movement must understand that it must be first on the market."[226]
When only a minority of Jewish refugees wished to go to Palestine, a report by Zionist operative Rabbi Klaussner, concluded, "[T]he people must be forced to go to Palestine."
Author Alfred Lilienthal reports that Zionists working in the refugee camps employed numerous means to compel residents to agree to go to Palestine, including confiscation of food rations, dismissal from work, expulsion from the camps, taking away legal protection and visa rights, and, in one case, "even the public flogging of a recalcitrant recruit for the Israel Army."[227]
The Jewish Brigade of the Royal British Army, a unit long sought by Zionists and finally created in the final months of the war, was one of the first on the scene. Its soldiers and officers turned into clandestine emissaries of the Zionist movement.[228]
Grodzinsky reports, "One role Brigade soldiers took upon themselves was to gather Jewish children hidden away in monasteries, or with non-Jewish families."[229]
He writes, "Jewish orphans were to be found in many places, having survived thanks to the goodness of Christian families and institutions that hid them throughout the war." Now the Brigade's soldiers, directed by the Jewish Agency's Center for Diaspora, were retrieving them and taking them to special orphanages, "where they were to be cared for, receive Zionist education, and be trained for immigration to Palestine."
Grodzinsky reports that the process was not always easy. "Many families who rescued Jewish children were now treating them as if they were their own. To retrieve these children, Brigade men occasionally resorted to force."
Future Israeli Major General Yossi Peled and his sisters were among them. They had been raised by a Christian family almost from infancy. Brigade soldiers "came in one day, armed, and threatened [the adoptive parents] saying that 'these are Jewish children and they must give us away, otherwise they would suffer'. They had no choice but hand us over, and we were put in a Jewish orphanage in Belgium."[230]
The children tried to refuse to leave the house, and one of the sisters later said that her siblings' "screams still echo in her head."
One of the best-known orphanages, Selvino House, was run by Brigade soldiers who implemented strict rules, including requiring that only Hebrew be spoken. Children were not permitted to leave the orphanage to search for relatives out of concern that they might then stay in Europe rather than go to Palestine.
Grodzinsky goes on to report that thousands of children passed through such institutions, "their period of residence there being just another part of 'the journey to the promised land.'"[231]
In July 1945 Zionists organized the "First Congress of Jewish Survivors in Germany," which issued a proclamation calling for the "immediate establishment of a Jewish State in Palestine." While the proclamation claimed to represent the survivors, in reality most of the ten signatories were Zionist envoys from Palestine.
David Ben-Gurion, the leader of the Zionist movement who was to become Israel's first prime minister, believed that Palestine should be the only destination for Jewish survivors. Grodzinsky gives little known context for odyssey of the 4,500 survivors from German camps who set sail in July 1947 as "illegal immigrants" on a ship later named Exodus.[232]
Grodzinsky writes, "The real story of the ship was far less glorious than the one told in Leon Uris's 1958 bestseller and Otto Preminger's 1960 film."
Citing Israeli author Idith Zertal, Grodzinsky writes that Ben-Gurion "felt that the plight of Jewish refugees in Europe needed to be dramatized in order to attract more sympathy for the Jewish struggle over Palestine."
While many people have heard that British authorities refused to allow their illegal immigration into Palestine and forced the boat to be returned to Germany, few know that
the French government had agreed to host the refugees. Ben-Gurion rejected this solution, and the survivors were forced, unnecessarily, to remain on board for seven months.
Grodzinsky comments: "Ben-Gurion's strategy in the Exodus affair paid off. The fate of the refugee ship attracted considerable and sympathetic attention around the world, and served the Zionist cause well. Few observers at the time knew that many of the refugees from the Exodus had applied for immigration visas to the United States, and were hardly anxious to settle in Israel. By dramatizing the fate of the survivors, in whom he had little interest except as future residents of the state he was building (Good Human Material is the original Hebrew title of Grodzinsky's book), Ben-Gurion helped to make Israel the world's chief power broker over Jewish affairs. Under his leadership, Israel established a claim to represent all of world Jewry, and on this basis successfully claimed reparations from the Federal Republic of Germany."
Grodzinsky/Zertal point out that this enabled Israel to acquire the right to speak not only for living Jews but for those who had perished under the Nazis, "to whom Ben-Gurion suggested granting symbolic citizenship--in effect, turning them into martyrs for the Jewish state." This despite the fact that some some, possibly many, had been anti-Zionist.

Zionists implement forced conscription

Grodzinsky reports that Zionist leaders determined that they needed to implement forced conscription if they were going to attain sufficient numbers for the way they were planning against Palestinians. Since American and European Jews would never have gone along with this, they targeted the weakest population for this compulsory draft: residents of the displaced persons camps.
After a voluntary recruitment drive netted less than 0.3 percent of the DP population, a compulsory draft was implemented.
This bizarre project – In which a non-nation state imposed compulsory military service on people who had never even lived in the land for which they were required to fight – was enforced through a number of mechanisms, including publishing black lists of "draft evaders," firing them from jobs, evicting them from dwellings, withdrawing their food rations, and beating them up. These tactics were also at times used on their relatives.
In one camp "a father of a Giyus evader Wecker was beaten up, as was the father of one who did not register; in another case an old father – Richter Aizik, was beaten because his son Moshe Richter did not register for the Giyus."[233]
Men and women who weren't able to evade this draft "were sometimes assigned to combat units with minimal training, and given little time to get their bearings." They were paid less than foreign volunteers and had fewer privileges.[234] Many could not even understand their Hebrew orders. Some died in battle, others died unknown, as Grodzinsky reports, "having had neither a home nor a family to come back to."[235]
The American public, however, was led to believe that European Jews desperately wished to go to Palestine, and the well organized, well funded, and frequently ruthless operation behind the emigration was hidden from view. Funding for the emigrant-recruitment operation included $25 million from the nongovernmental organization the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee.
A British general who had been Eisenhower's deputy and was credited with the buildup for the Normandy invasion, Sir Frederick Morgan, noticed a bit of what was going on. He publicly noted that many of the refugees headed for Palestine were well dressed and well fed – "their pockets bulging with money" – and concluded that something must be encouraging their emigration.
The World Jewish Congress stated officially and duplicitously, "General Morgan's allegation of a 'secret Jewish force inside Europe aiming at a mass exodus to Palestine' is… fantastically untrue."[236]
Morgan was forced to apologize, even though, as a pro-Israel author writes, "Morgan's analysis of the situation was quite correct."[237]

The Sieff group: Blocking a counter-Balfour declaration

Another secret group working on behalf of Zionism was formed in 1942 by Israel M. Sieff, a British clothing magnate who was temporarily living in the U.S.
The Sieff group was, as historian Grose puts it, "a sophisticated version of Brandeis's Parushim."
While its existence was never openly acknowledged, it grew into the secret back channel through official Washington during the last years of FDR's presidency and the critical first years of Truman's.
Its members included such men as Ben Cohen, a member of the White House staff; Robert Nathan, in intelligence; David Ginsburg, a New Deal bureaucrat; David Lilienthal, chairman of the Tennessee Valley Authority, and David Niles, a high White House official under both Roosevelt and Truman. Grose reports:
"The little nucleus possessed the entree and the clout to carry the message of Jewish Palestine into the highest policymaking circles – through casual suggestion, indirection, chance remarks among well-placed colleagues in the corridors of power and the salons of social Washington."[238]
On July 27, 1943, US State Department officials and English diplomats, concerned that Zionist activities were causing serious harm to the war effort, almost issued a "reverse Balfour" declaration calling for these activities to cease. The Sieff group, Felix Frankfurter, Henry Morgenthau, Jr., David Niles, Bernard Baruch, et al took emergency action and blocked the declaration.[239]

Palestinian refugees

By 1949, Israel's "War of Independence" and ethnic cleansing[240] had created hundreds of thousands of Palestinian refugees. The U.S. Representative in Israel sent an urgent report to Truman:
"Arab refugee tragedy is rapidly reaching catastrophic proportions and should be treated as a disaster...Of approximately 400,000 refugees approaching winter with cold heavy rains will, it is estimated, kill more than 100,000 old men, women and children who are shelterless and have little or no food."[241]
The number of refugees continued to grow, reaching at least three-quarters of a million, and desperate, starving Palestinians inundated neighboring Arab countries. U.S. Diplomats in Cairo and Amman described a disastrous situation in which the "almost nonexistent resources" of these countries were stretched nearly to the breaking point.
The State Department reported that during the last nine months of 1948 Arab states had donated $11 million to refugee aid, stating, "This sum, in light of the very slender budgets of most of these governments, is relatively enormous."[242]
During this time, the report noted, "…the total direct relief offered…by the Israeli government to date consists of 500 cases of oranges."[243]
Meanwhile, Israel had acquired properties worth at least $480 million in 1947 dollars; one estimate put the figure at $35 billion in 1990 dollars.[244]
Journalist and academic Anders Strindberg reports:
"In the process of 'Judaizing' Palestine, numerous convents, hospices, seminaries, and churches were either destroyed or cleared of their Christian owners and custodians. In one of the most spectacular attacks on a Christian target, on May 17, 1948, the Armenian Orthodox Patriarchate was shelled with about 100 mortar rounds—launched by Zionist forces from the already occupied monastery of the Benedictine Fathers on Mount Zion.
"The bombardment also damaged St. Jacob's Convent, the Archangel's Convent, and their appended churches, their two elementary and seminary schools, as well as their libraries, killing eight people and wounding 120."[245]
Truman, whose caving in to Zionist pressures had helped create the disaster, now tried to convince Israel to allow the refugees to return to their homes. His main representative working on this was Mark Ethridge, former publisher of the Louisville Courier Journal.
Ethridge was disgusted at Israel's refusal, reporting to the State Department:
"What I can see is an abortion of justice and humanity to which I do not want to be midwife…"[246]
The State Department finally threatened to withhold $49 million of unallocated funds from an Export-Import Bank loan to Israel if it did not allow at least 200,000 refugees to return. The U.S. coordinator on Palestine Refugee Matters George C. McGhee delivered the message to the Israeli ambassador and later described his response:
"The ambassador looked me straight in the eye and said, in essence, that I wouldn't get by with this move, that he would stop it… Within an hour of my return to my office I received a message from the White House that the President wished to dissociate himself from any withholding of the Ex-Im Bank loan."[247]
Edwin Wright, a State Department Middle East specialist from 1945-66, was the subject of an oral history interview many years later for the Truman Library. About this interview, he said:
"The material I gave [interviewer] Professor McKinzie was of a very controversial nature--one almost taboo in U.S. circles, inasmuch as I accused the Zionists of using political pressures and even deceit in order to get the U.S. involved in a policy of supporting a Zionist theocratic, ethnically exclusive and ambitious Jewish State. I, and my associates in the State Department, felt this was contrary to U.S. interests and we were overruled by President Truman."[248]

Zionist influence in the media

As historian Richard Stevens notes, Zionists early on learned to exploit the essential nature of the American political system: that policies can be made and un-made through force of public opinion and pressure. Procuring influence in the media, both paid and unpaid, has been a key component of their success.[249]
From early on, the Zionist narrative largely dominated news coverage of the region. A study of four leading newspapers' 1917 coverage showed that editorial opinion almost universally favored the Zionist position. Author Kathleen Christison notes that "editorials and news stories alike applauded Jewish enterprise, heralding a Jewish return to Palestine as 'glorious news.'" Other studies showed the same situation for the 1920s. Christison writes:
"The relatively heavy press coverage is an indicator of the extent of Zionist influence even in this early period. One scholar has estimated that, as of the mid-1920s, approximately half of all New York Times articles were placed by press agents, suggesting that U.S. Zionist organizations may have placed many of the articles on Zionism's Palestine endeavors."[250]
At one point when the State Department was trying to convince Israel to allow Palestinian refugees to return, Secretary of State Marshall wrote:
"The leaders of Israel would make a grave miscalculation if they thought callous treatment of this tragic issue could pass unnoted by world opinion."[251]
Marshall underestimated the ability of Zionists to minimize the information on Palestinian refugees reaching Americans. A State Department study in March 1949 found the American public was "unaware of the Palestine refugee problem, since it has not been hammered away at by the press or radio."[252]
As author Alfred Lilienthal explained in 1953:
"The capture of the American press by Jewish nationalism was, in fact, incredibly complete. Magazines as well as newspapers, in news stories as well as editorial columns, gave primarily the Zionist views of events before, during, and after partition."[253]
When the Saturday Evening Post published an article by Milton Mayer that criticized Jewish nationalism (and carried two other articles giving opposing views), Zionists organized what was probably the worst attack on the Post in its long history.
Zionists inundated the magazine with vitriolic mail, cancelled their subscriptions, and withdrew their advertising. The Post learned its lesson, later refusing to publish an article that would have again exposed it to such an onslaught, even though the editor acknowledged that the rejected piece was a "good and eloquent article."[254]
This was typical in a campaign in which Zionists exploited sympathy for victimized Jews, and when this did not sufficiently skew reporting about Palestine, used financial pressure. Lilienthal writes:
"If 'voluntary' compliance was not 'understanding' enough, there was always the matter of Jewish advertising and circulation. The threat of economic recriminations from Jewish advertisers, combined with the fact that the fatal label of 'Anti-Semite' would be pinned on any editor stepping out of line, assured fullest press cooperation."[255]
Author Christison records that from the moment partition was voted by the UN, "the press played a critical role in building a framework for thinking that would endure for decades." She writes that shortly before May 15, 1948, the scheduled beginning of the Jewish State, a total of 24 U.S., British, and Australian reporters converged on Palestine.
"Virtually all reporting was from the Jewish perspective," reports Christison. "The journals the Nation and the New Republic both showed what one scholar calls 'an overt emotional partiality' toward the Jews. No item published in either journal was sympathetic to the Arabs, and no correspondent was stationed in Arab areas of Palestine, although some reporters lived with, and sometimes fought alongside, Jewish settlers."[256]
Bookstores were inundated with books espousing the Zionist point of view to enthusiastic press reviews. Conversely, the few books published that dared to provide a different perspective were given scathing reviews, when they were reviewed at all.[257]
When Professor Millar Burrows of the Yale School of Divinity, a distinguished scholar and archaeologist, wrote Palestine Is Our Business, the American Zionist Council distributed a publication labeling his book "an anti-Semitic opus."
In fact, Professor Burrows' life history showed the opposite. He had been one of the organizers and Vice-President of the National Committee to Combat Anti-Semitism and had long been active in the interfaith movement in New Haven.[258]
In his book Burrows wrote, "A terrible wrong has been done to the native people of [Palestine.] The blame for what has happened must be distributed among all concerned, including ourselves. Our own interests, both as Americans and as Christians, are endangered. The interests of the Jewish people also have suffered. And we can still do something about it."[259]
Burrows emphasized: "This is a question of the most immediate and vital concern to many hundreds of thousands of living people. It is an issue on which one concerned with right and wrong must take a position and try to do something."[260]
Burrows wrote that imposing a Jewish state on Palestine violated the principle of self-determination, and noted that the "right of a majority of the people of a country to choose their own government would hardly be questioned in any other instance."[261]
Burrows criticized what he termed "pro-Zionist reporting," and pointed out that a "quite different view of the situation would emerge if the word 'resistance' were used" when describing Palestinian and Arab fighting in 1948[262]. He wrote that the "plan for Palestine advocated by the Arabs was a democracy with freedom of religion and complete separation of religion and the State, as in this country."[263]
In his conclusion, Burrows stated: "All the Arab refugees who want to return to their homes must be allowed and helped to do so, and must be restored to their own villages, houses, and farms or places of business, with adequate compensation from the Government of Israel for destruction and damage."[264]
He also stated: "Homes must be found in this country or elsewhere for Jews desiring to become citizens of other countries that Israel, and their religious, civic, social, and economic rights must be guaranteed."[265]
In their onslaught against him, Zionists accused Burrows of "careless writing, disjointed reporting and extremely biased observation."[266]
Another author who described the misery of Palestinian refugees (as well as Jewish suffering in Israel), Willie Snow Ethridge, was similarly attacked by pro-Israel reviewers. When she was invited to address the Maryland Teachers Association and chose to speak on her book, Journey to Jerusalem, she was told she must speak on a different subject. The secretary of the association explained that so much pressure had been brought on him that he would lose his job if she didn't changed to another topic.[267]
Still another was the eminent dean of Barnard College, Virginia Gildersleeve, a highly distinguished personage with impeccable credentials as a humanitarian. When she wrote that Palestinian refugees should be allowed to return to their homes, a campaign was begun against her as a Christian "anti-Semite."[268]
Gildersleeve, who had been instrumental in drafting the Preamble to the U.N. Charter and had taken a leading role in creating the U.N. Human Rights Commission, later devoted herself to working for human rights in the Middle East. She testified before Congressional committees and lobbied President Truman, to no avail. In her memoir, she attributed such failures to "the Zionist control of the media of communication."[269]

Dorothy Thompson, played by Katharine Hepburn & Lauren Bacall

America's most famous female journalist of the time also attempted valiantly, but unsuccessfully, to tell Americans about Palestinian refugees.
According to the Britannica encyclopedia, Dorothy Thompson was "one of the most famous journalists of the 20th Century."[270]
Thompson's column was in newspapers all over the country, her radio program listened to by tens of millions of Americans, she had been married to one of America's most famous novelists, graced the cover of Time magazine, been profiled by America's top magazines and was so well-known that "Woman of the Year," a Hollywood movie featuring Kathryn Hepburn and Spencer Tracey and a Broadway play starring Lauren Bacall, were based on her.[271]
She had been the first journalist to be expelled by Adolph Hitler and had raised the alarm against the Nazis long ahead of most other journalists. She had originally supported Zionism, but then after the war had visited the region in person. She began to speak about Palestinian refugees, narrated a documentary about their plight[272], and condemned Jewish terrorism.
Thompson was viciously attacked in an orchestrated campaign of what she termed "career assassination and character assassination." She wrote: "It has been boundless, going into my personal life." She wrote of this organized attack:
"…when letter after letter is couched in almost identical phraseology I do not think the authors have been gifted with telepathy."[273]
She was dropped by the New York Post, whose editor Ted Thackry, and his wife, Dorothy Schiff, were said by other Post editors to be close to the Irgun and Menachem Begin. Begin, the Irgunists, the Stern Gang and other Zionists organizations had, according to one commentator, "inordinate access" to the Post's editorial board.[274]
(Dorothy Schiff, granddaughter of financier Jacob Schiff and owner of the Post, later divorced Thackry and married Rudolf Sonneborn.[275])
Thompson's mail was filled with ferocious accusations that she was "anti-Semitic" for publicizing Zionist cruelties. One such correspondent told her that her "filthy incitements to pogroms" would not be tolerated by New York's Jews.[276]
Before long, her column and radio programs, her speaking engagements, and her fame were all gone. Today, she has largely been erased from history.
In the coming decades, other Americans were similarly written out of history, forced out of office, their lives and careers destroyed; history was distorted, re-written, erased; bigotry promoted, supremacy disguised, facts replaced by fraud.
Very few people know this history. The excellent books that document it are largely out of print, their facts and very existence virtually unknown to the vast majority of Americans, even those who focus on the Middle East. Instead, false theories have been promulgated, mendacious analyses promoted, chosen authors celebrated, others assigned to oblivion.
George Orwell once wrote: "Who controls the past, controls the future. Who controls the present controls the past."[277]
Perhaps by rediscovering the past, we'll gain control of the present, and save the future.

End Notes

and additional information

Works Cited

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[1] In Israel it is typically called "the Jewish lobby," perhaps reflective of the fact that today virtually all the mainstream Jewish organizations in the U.S., both religious and secular – the ADL, Jewish Federations, Jewish Community Relations Councils, the Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations, Jewish Studies departments, etc – advocate for Israel. Benjamin Ginsberg, in the anthology Jews in American Politics, notes that the "greatest triumph of American Jewish organizations during the postwar period" was to secure recognition of the state of Israel over the objections of the U.S. State and Defense Departments and then to successfully urge the U.S. government to provide Israel with billions of dollars over the subsequent decades.
However, until World War II and Nazi atrocities against Jews, the majority of Jewish Americans did not support Zionism. From its beginnings in Germany, Reform Judaism had rejected Jewish nationalism, and in the U.S. the Reform movement embraced universalism. Historian Rafael Medoff writes that an 1885 proclamation specifically "denounced the concept of a Jewish return to the land of Zion." (p.26)
Today's unanimity was only created after years of strenuous and sometimes secretive efforts to overcome the objections of anti-Zionist Jewish individuals and organizations, and even now, JJ Goldberg's contention, made in his informative book Jewish Power, may hold considerable truth: "…the broader population of American Jews… are almost entirely unaware of the work being done in their name."
Goldberg, Jonathan J. Jewish Power: inside the American Jewish Establishment. Reading, Mass. [u.a.: Addison-Wesley, 1996. 7.
Many people feel this a profoundly unfortunate situation, believing, as Israel professor Yosef Grodzinsky writes: "...the State of Israel and its actions actually put world Jewry at risk." ("In the Shadow of the Holocaust." Interview by Chris Spannos. Znet. Jun 7, 2005. Z Communications Link)
[2] See, for example, CounterPunch LinkACLU Link
[3] New Jersey's population is 8,821,155 according to U.S. Census figures:
Israel's population, according to the CIA World Factbook is 7,590,758 (July 2012 est.). Of this, approximately 5,799,339 are Jewish citizens.
Israel's population growth can be seen here:
Israel's area is 20,770 square kilometers – smaller than all but four of the states in the U.S.
[4] Herzl's seminal book The Jewish State is online at:http://fliiby.com/file/239266/f8rd51benn.html
"Herzl devoted all his time to this movement, eventually dying at the age of 44 leaving his family penniless. An article in the Israeli newspaper Ha'aretz reports that his daughter Pauline suffered from emotional problems from youth and eventually died of morphine addiction. His son Hans converted to Christianity in 1924, at which time he was abandoned by the Jewish community and denounced publicly. He committed suicide following his sister's death. A book about Herzl's children was written in the 1940s but was suppressed by the World Zionist Organization, which decided to bury Pauline and Hans in Bordeaux, despite their wish to be buried beside their father in Austria, "probably to avoid tarnishing Herzl's image."
– Uni, Assaf. "Hans Herzl's Wish Comes True - 76 Years Later." Ha'aretz [Israel] 19 Sept. 2006. Print. Haaretz Link
[5] Christison, Kathleen. Perceptions of Palestine: Their Influence on U.S. Middle East Policy. First Paperback Printing ed. Berkeley, Calif: University of California, 2000. Print.
Davis, John Herbert. The Evasive Peace: a Study of the Zionist-Arab Problem. First American ed. [N.Y.]: New World, 1970. Print. 1.
It was first just called the Zionist Organization; its name officially changed to the WZO in 1960. Most people use the two names interchangeably.
According to the WZO website, today the organization "consists of the following bodies:
The World Zionist Unions, international Zionist federations; and international organizations that define themselves as Zionist, such as WIZO, Hadassah, Bnai-Brith, Maccabi, the International Sephardic Federation, the three streams of world Judaism (Orthodox, Conservative, Reform), delegation from the CIS – Commonwealth of Independent States (former Soviet Union), the World Union of Jewish Students (WUJS), and more."
[6] Mulhall, John W., CSP. America and the Founding of Israel: an Investigation of the Morality of America's Role. Los Angeles: Deshon, 1995. Print. 47, 51-52.
[7] Khalidi, Walid. "The Palestine Problem: An Overview." Journal of Palestine Studies 21.1 (1991): 5-16. Print. Online at Google
The best resources on the pre-Israel population are:
Abu-Sitta, Salman H. Atlas of Palestine, 1917-1966. London: Palestine Land Society, 2010. Print.
McCarthy, Justin. The Population of Palestine: Population History and Statistics of the Late Ottoman Period and the Mandate. New York: Columbia UP, 1990. Print.
Khalidi, Walid. All That Remains: the Palestinian Villages Occupied and Depopulated by Israel in 1948. Washington, DC: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1992. Print.
A Survey of Palestine. Prepared in December 1945 and January 1946 for the Information of the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry, by the British Mandatory Commission, 1946. Washington, D.C.: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1991. Two volumes. Print.
Supplement to Survey of Palestine Notes Compiled for the Information of the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine. Washington, D.C.: Inst. of Palestine Studies, 1991. Print.
[8] Nur, Masalha. Expulsion of the Palestinians: the Concept of "transfer" in Zionist Political Thought, 1882-1948. Fourth ed. Washington, DC: Inst. for Palestine Studies, 2001. Print.
An example of the fanaticism to be found within some segments of the movement is represented by a statement by Dr. Israel Eldad:
"Israel is the Jews land… It was never the Arabs land, even when virtually all of its inhabitants were Arab. Israel belongs to four million Russian Jews despite the fact that they were not born here. It is the land of nine million other Jews throughout the world, even if they have no present plans to live in it." – Wright, p.1, citing The Times of Israel, August 19, 1969.
Eldad was a strategist for a pre-state underground militia who later became a lecturer at several Israeli universities, authored a number of books, and in 1988, Eldad was awarded Israel's Bialik Prize for his contributions to Israeli thought.
Another example is described by Israeli Uri Avneri, who quotes a song that was being sung while he was growing up in Palestine (cited by Wright, 9):
"We have returned, Young and Powerful
We have returned, We the Mighty
To conquer our Homeland, In a storm of War,
To redeem our land, with a lofty hand,
With blood and fire, Judea fell
With blood and fire, Judea shall rise."
[9] An earlier project with both a domestic and international focus, "The Board of Delegates of American Israelites," was organized in 1861, which coalesced to block an effort by the Union during the Civil War to prepare a constitutional amendment declaring America a Christian nation. (See J.J. Goldberg, Jewish Power, p. 97.)
In 1870 the group organized protest rallies around the country and lobbied Congress to take action against reported Romanian pogroms that had killed "thousands" of Jews. The chair of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee suggested that such reports might be exaggerated, but under pressure from the "Israelite" board, the Senate ordered the committee to take up the matter with the State Department. Eventually, it turned out the total killed had been zero. (Goldberg, 98-99)
In their book on foreign lobbying in Washington, The Power Peddlers, authors Russell Warren Howe and Sarah Hays Trott write that the American Jewish Committee's history of Jewish lobbying on behalf of both American and foreign Jews began in the mid-nineteenth century. P. 284.
Howe and Trott write, "The first lobby link with Palestine came in 1881, when Jewish American groups wrote to General Lewis Wallace," the author of Ben Hur and then U.S. minister to the Ottoman Empire (which included Palestine), to intercede on behalf of American Jews who had retired to Jerusalem and were allegedly being harassed. P. 285
[10] Lichtenstein, Diane. "Emma Lazarus." Jewish Virtual Library. A Division of The American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. Web. 03 Apr. 2012.http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/lazarus.html
[11] Sarna, Jonathan D., Ellen Smith, and Scott-Martin Kosovsky. The Jews of Boston. New Haven, London : Yale University Press, Combined Jewish Philanthropies of Greater Boston, 2005. 252. Online
[12] Dalin, David G. "At the Summit: Presidents, Presidential Appointments, and Jews." Jews in American Politics. Editors: Maisel Louis Sandy, Ira N. Forman, Donald Altschiller, and Charles Walker Bassett. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2004. Print. 32-34.
(The appointee was Oscar Straus, whose brothers owned Macy's Department Store and whom TR later named to his cabinet. Dalin reports a humorous incident that occurred at a dinner years later for Straus and Roosevelt:
"In his remarks, Roosevelt had stated that Straus had been appointed on the basis of merit and ability alone; the fact that he was Jewish had played no part in Roosevelt's decision to appoint him. A few minutes later, in introducing Straus, [another speaker, the Jewish financier and philothropist Jacob] Schiff, who was a bit deaf and had evidently not heard Roosevelt's remarks, recounted how Roosevelt had sought his advice as to who would be the most suitable and eminent Jewish leader to appoint to his cabinet."
The 30-year pattern ended in 1917 when Turkey broke off diplomatic relations after the U.S. declared war on Germany; after the war Turkey no longer controlled Palestine.
[13] Kolsky, 24.
[14] Kolsky, Thomas A. Jews against Zionism: the American Council for Judaism, 1942-1948. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 1990. Print. 24.
[15] In a 1918 reorganization the FAZ renamed itself the Zionist Organization of America (ZOA). Kolsky, 26.
[16] Neff, Donald. Fallen Pillars: U.S. Policy towards Palestine and Israel since 1945. Reprint Edition. Washington D.C.: Institute for Palestine Studies, 2002. 8.
Neff, the author of five books on Israel, was Jerusalem Bureau Chief and then a Senior Editor for Time magazine.
[17] Kolsky, 25.
[18] Neff, p. 17. Tivnan, p. 30
[19] Stevens, Richard P. American Zionism and U.S. Foreign Policy, 1942-1947. Reprinted by the Institute for Palestine Studies, 1970. New York: Pageant, 1962. Print. 20
[20] Stevens, Richard P., American Zionism and U.S. Foreign Policy 1942-1947. New York: Pageant Press. Inc. Reprinted by the Institute for Palestine Studies, 1970, p. 20.
[21] Neff, 9.
[22] Neff, 10.
[23] Neff, 10. Christison, 28. John, Robert, and Sami Hadawi. The Palestine Diary 1914-1945 Britain's Involvement (Vol. I). Reprint of Third Ed. Charleston: BookSurge, 2006. Introduction by Arnold Toynbee. Print. 59.
[24] Murphy is a judicial biographer and scholar of American Constitutional law and politics and is the Fred Morgan Kirby Professor of Civil Rights at Lafayette College. He holds a PhD from the University of Virginia. This book received a Certificate of Merit from the American Bar Association.
[25] Murphy, p. 10.
[26] Murphy, p. 10; back cover flap.
[27] Murphy, p. 11.
[28] Murphy, p. 39.
[29] Murphy, p. 39.
[30] Peter Grose was an editor and specialist on the history of intelligence. Grose was an editor for the New York Times and Foreign Affairs. He held a position at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. He is the author of a number of books on modern U.S. history. – "Princeton University Library." Peter Grose Papers, 1942-1999: Preliminary Finding Aid. Web. 06 Apr. 2012. http://findingaids.princeton.edu/getEad?eadid=MC227
A positive review of the book in Foreign Policy stated: "[Grose] is not a one-sided partisan; he exposes the faults and foibles of all concerned (above all, the State Department). What slant the book has derives from his chosen theme: that America and the Jewish state are "bonded together" through history and shared values." – Campbell, John C. "Israel in the Mind of America." Foreign Affairs Spring (1984). Foreign Affairs. Council on Foreign Relations. Web. 06 Apr. 2012. Foreign Affairs Link
[31] Grose, Peter. Israel in the Mind of America. New York: Knopf, 1984. Print.
[32] Grose, p. 53
The Menorah Society was also a largely a Zionist organization, and was similarly secretive about its Zionist connections. An essay from the time states that the Menorah Society "camouflaged its Zionism by organizing itself as a purely nonpartisan body so as to obtain a larger membership." The writer reports that "practically all the leaders and active workers in the Menorah organization are Zionists… the thing of which the Menorah boasts now…is its little list of prize conversions to Zionism. – Kosofsky, 256.
[33] Schmidt, Sarah. "The Parushim: A Secret Episode in American Zionist History."American Jewish Historical Quarterly 65.Dec (1975): 121-39. Print.121. Online at CNI Link
Schmidt writes: "The image that emerges of the Parushim is that of a secret underground guerilla force determined to influence the course of events in a quiet, anonymous way."
Schmidt gives the entire oath and response of the Parushim initiation:
A member swearing allegiance to the Parushim felt something of the spirit of commitment to a secret military fellowship. At the initiation ceremony the head of the Order informed him:
You are about to take a step which will bind you to a single cause for all your life. You will for one year be subject to an absolute duty whose call you will be impelled to heed at any time, in any place, and at any cost. And ever after, until our purpose shall be accomplished, you will be fellow of a brotherhood whose bond you will regard as greater than any other in your life-dearer than that of family, of school, of nation. By entering this brotherhood, you become a self-dedicated soldier in the army of Zion. Your obligation to Zion becomes your paramount obligation... It is the wish of your heart and of your own free will to join our fellowship, to share its duties, its tasks, and its necessary sacrifices.
The initiate responded by swearing:
Before this council, in the name of all that I hold dear and holy, I hereby vow myself, my life, my fortune, and my honor to the restoration of the Jewish nation, -to its restoration as a free and autonomous state, by its laws perfect in justice, by its life enriching and preserving the historic speech, the culture, and the ideals of the Jewish people.
To this end I dedicate myself in behalf of the Jews, my people, and in behalf of all mankind.
To this end I enroll myself in the fellowship of the Parushim. I pledge myself utterly to guard and to obey and to keep secret the laws and the labor of the fellowship, its existence and its aims. Amen.
Schmidt reports that Henrietta Szold, founder of Hadassah, the Women's Zionist Organization, was an early member of the Parushim.
She writes: "Brandeis … began to assign the Parushim to carry out special "missions" for him. In particular the Parushim were to serve as a school for leaders, and under Kallen's direction its members initially became the leading activists of the reorganized American Zionist movement."
Among those invited to be members were Alexander Dushkin, an authority on Jewish education; Dr. I. L. Kandel, an educator then with the Carnegie Foundation and Teacher's College of Columbia University; Israel Thurman, a lawyer and "Harvard man," who would be used to propagandize among young lawyers; Nathan C. House, a "Columbia man," high school teacher, who could work out plans for training Jewish high school boys; I.J. Biskind, a doctor in Cleveland; Steven S. Wise, prominent Reform Rabbi and leader in the Jewish Community; Oscar Straus; Alexander Sachs, a graduate student in economics at Columbia University; David Shapiro, an agricultural student at the University of California; Jesse Sampter, a writer and poetess; Elisha Friedman, President of the Collegiate Zionist League.
Also according to Schmidt; "The Pittsburgh Program seems to have been the last of the projects of the Parushim."
[34] Grose, p. 54.
American professor Horace Kallen was a major mover and the original founder of the Parushim.
In his book American Zionism: Mission and Politics, Jeffrey Gurock writes (p. 135): "Brandeis conducted a vigorous search of his own for 'college men,' particularly young graduates of Harvard Law School, whom he co-opted to leadership or special assignments for the regular and emergency Zionist organizations he controlled. Among those recruited were men like Felix Frankfurter, Judge Julian Mack, Walter Lippmann [who seems to have largely turned them down], Bernard Flexner [one of the founders of the Council on Foreign Relations], Benjamin Cohen [high official under both FDR and Truman], and others who achieved national and international eminence."
Read online at Google Books Link
Parushim creator Kallen is known as being one of the fathers of "cultural pluralism," opposing the highly popular "melting pot" view, in which immigrants from all over the world would join together as non-hyphenated Americans. See, for example, Alexander, Michael. Jazz Age Jews. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 2001. Print. P. 90.
[35] Neff, Fallen Pillars, p. 12.
Brandeis also "played a decisive role in planning Wilson's economic program, and particularly in formulating the Federal Reserve."
-- Ginsberg, Benjamin. The Fatal Embrace: Jews and the State. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1993. Print. 93
[36] Neff 12; John & Hadawi, p. 59-60.
Felix Frankfurter's work on behalf of Zionism spanned many years. FDR was to appoint him to the Supreme Court in 1939, and even before this time he used his "access to the president to bring Zionist issues to his attention and urge his intercession on behalf of the Zionist cause. – Christison, 47
"At Brandeis's behest, Frankfurter also became involved with American Zionism. In 1917 Frankfurter accompanied Ambassador Henry Morgenthau to Turkey and Egypt to see what could be done for the settlements in Palestine during the World War. Frankfurter also attended the peace conference in Paris as a representative of the American Zionist movement and as a liaison for Brandeis." - Alexander, Michael. Jazz Age Jews. 91
Online at Google Books Link
Financier Jacob Schiff had created a position for Frankfurter at Harvard early in his career.
[37] Kolsky, 25, 32.
[38] "World War I." Digital History. Web. 03 Apr. 2012.http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/modules/ww1/index.cfm
[39] "Woodrow Wilson." The White House. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Jan. 2013.
[40] Deaths and injuries were 364,800:
[41] Wilson's Alien and Sedition acts resulted in the jailing 1,200 American citizens:
"Walter C. Matthey of Iowa was sentenced to a year in jail for applauding an anticonscription speech. Walter Heynacher of South Dakota was sentenced to five years in Leavenworth for telling a younger man that 'it was foolishness to send our boys over there to get killed by the thousands, all for the sake of Wall Street.'…Abraham Sugarman of Sibley County, Minnesota, was sentenced to three years in Leavenworth for arguing that the draft was unconstitutional and remarking, 'This is supposed to be a free country. Like Hell it is.'" – Kauffman, Bill. Ain't My America: the Long, Noble History of Antiwar Conservatism and Middle American Anti-imperialism. New York: Metropolitan, 2008. Print. 74.
One of the songs that helped recruit Americans to fight in the war, "Over There," was written by George M. Cohan, who received the Congressional Medal of Honor for it in 1940, when America was about to join another world war:
[42] An intriguing article speculates that Zionists might have played a role in making the Zimmerman note public. While the article is speculative, the editors called it "...an original and very plausible explanation of a major event in world history for which no previous rationale has ever seemed satisfactory." See: Cornelius, John. "The Balfour Declaration and the Zimmermann Note." Washington Report on Middle East Affairs August-September (1997): 18-20. Print.
Online at WRMEA Link
[43] Shlaim, Avi. The Iron Wall: Israel and the Arab World. P.5.
[44] Mulhall, 50.
[45] Mulhall p. 66. This was a sadly deft prognosis, writing of Jerusalem in the early 1960s, the American Consul General in Jerusalem found: "I think I can safely make the general comment that in present-day Israel… the Arabs are very much of 'hewers of wood and drawers of water'" for the dominant Israelis – Wilson, Evan M. Jerusalem, Key to Peace. Washington: Middle East Institute, 1970. 33.
[46] At the Battle of the Somme Britain lost 58,000 troops on the first day alone. "Firstworldwar.com." First World War.com. Web. 03 Apr. 2012.http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/somme.htm
[47] John, p 68-70: "The British government was advised that 'previous overtures to American Jewry to support the Allies had received no attention was because the approach had been to the wrong people. It was to the Zionist Jews that the British and French governments should address their parleys.' Sir Mark Sykes was particularly weighed down by the secret Sykes-Picot Agreement, which had promised that the British would support Arab independence, insisting that it was impossible to offer Palestine to the Jews. He was told that Brandeis had just become a Supreme Court Justice, and that he had President Wilson's ear. This began the negotiations with the Zionists.
Zionists had retained Lloyd George's law firm in approximately 1903. For a detailed discussion of the Lusitania incident and other aspects of the U.S. entry into WWI see Cornelius, John. "The Hidden History of the Balfour Declaration." Washington Report on Middle East Affairs Nov. (2005): 44-50. Print.
Online at WRMEA Link
[48] See citation #6.
[49] "Balfour Declaration Author Was a Secret Jew, Says Prof." JWeekly (Jewish Bulletin of San Francisco) Jan 15 (1999). Print. Online at Jewish Weekly Link
Rubinstein, William D. "The Secret of Leopold Amery." History Today 49. Feb (1999). Print. Online at CNI Link
According to his publisher, Macmillan, "William D. Rubinstein is Professor of Modern History at the University of Aberystwyth, UK and a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society. He has published widely on modern British history and on modern Jewish history, and was President of the Jewish Historical Society of England, 2002-2004. His works includeA History of the Jews in the English-Speaking World: Great Britain (Palgrave Macmillan 1996), TheMyth of Rescue (1997), and Israel, the Jews and the West: The Fall and Rise of Antisemitism(2008)." http://us.macmillan.com/authordetails.aspx?authorname=williamdrubinstein
Amery, who had kept his Jewish roots secret, worked for Zionism in a number of ways. As a pro-Israel writer (Daphne Anson) reports:
"As assistant military secretary to the Secretary of State for War, Amery played a pivotal role in the establishment of the Jewish Legion, consisting of three battalions of Jewish soldiers who served, under Britain's aegis, in Palestine during the First World War and were the forerunners of the IDF. 'I seem to have had my finger in the pie, not only of the Balfour Declaration, but of the genesis of the present Israeli Army', he notes proudly.
"As Dominions Secretary (1925-29) he had responsibility for the Palestine Mandate, robustly supporting the growth and development of the Yishuv – Weizman recalled Amery's "unstinting encouragement and support" and that Amery "realized the importance of a Jewish Palestine in the British imperial scheme of things more than anyone else. He also had much insight into the intrinsic fineness of the Zionist movement". In 1937, shortly after testifying before the Peel Commission on the future of Palestine, Amery helped to organise a dinner in tribute to the wartime Jewish Legion at which his friend Jabotinsky was guest of honour. Amery became an increasingly vociferous critic of the British government's dilution of its commitments to the Jews of Palestine in order to appease the Arabs, and fulminated in the Commons against the notorious White Paper of 1939, which set at 75,000 the maximum number of Jews to be admitted to Palestine over the ensuing five years. 'I have rarely risen with a greater sense of indignation and shame or made a speech which I am more content to look back upon', he remembered. And he became an arch-critic of Chamberlain and Appeasement."
[50] World Jewry, March 1, 1935, cited by John, p. 72.
[51] Landman, S. Great Britain, the Jews and Palestine. London: New Zionist, 1936. Print.
Online at http://desip.igc.org/1939sLandman.htm Excerpts below:
"Mr. James A. Malcolm, who..... knew that Mr. Woodrow Wilson, for good and sufficient reasons, always attached the greatest possible importance to the advice of a very prominent Zionist (Mr. Justice Brandeis, of the U.S. Supreme Court) ; and was in close touch with Mr. Greenberg, Editor of the Jewish Chronicle (London) ; and knew that several important Zionist Jewish leaders had already gravitated to London from the Continent on the qui vive awaiting events ; and appreciated and realised the depth and strength of Jewish national aspirations; spontaneously took the initiative, to convince first of all Sir Mark Sykes, Under Secretary to the War Cabinet,and afterwards Monsieur Georges Picot, of the French Embassy in London, and Monsieur Goût of the Quai d'Orsay (Eastern Section), that the best and perhaps the only way (which proved so. to be) to induce the American President to come into the War was to secure the co-operation of Zionist Jews by promising them Palestine, and thus enlist and mobilise the hitherto unsuspectedly powerful forces of Zionist Jews in America and elsewhere in favour of the Allies on a quid pro quo contract basis. Thus, as will be seen, the Zionists, having carried out their part, and greatly helped to bring America in, the Balfour Declaration of 1917 was but the public confirmation of the necessarily secret " gentleman's " agreement of 1916..."
"The Balfour Declaration, in the words of Professor H. M. V. Temperley, 2 was "a definite contract between the British Government and Jewry." The main consideration given by the Jewish people (represented at the time by the leaders of the Zionist Organisation) was their help in bringing President Wilson to the aid of the Allies."
"...many wealthy and prominent international or semi-assimilated Jews in Europe and America were openly or tacitly opposed to it (Zionist movement)..."
"In Germany, the value of the bargain to the Allies, apparently, was duly and carefully noted."
"The fact that it was Jewish help that brought U.S.A. into the War on the side of the Allies ... contributed in no small measure to the prominence which anti-Semitism occupies in the Nazi programme."
[52] Davidson, Lawrence, America's Palestine: Popular and Official Perceptions from Balfour to Israeli Statehood. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2001. 11-12.
[53] Wilson, Evan M. Decision on Palestine: How the U.S. Came to Recognize Israel. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution, Stanford University, 1979. Print. p. xv.
Moshe Menuhin, scion of a distinguished Jewish family that moved to Palestine during the early days of Zionism (and father of the renowned musicians), also writes about this aspect. In addition, he states that the oft-repeated claim that the British rewarded Weizman for his "discovery of TNT" was false, quoting Weizmann's autobiography Trial and Error, p. 271:
"For some unfathomable reason they always billed me as the inventor of TNT. It was in vain that I systematically and repeatedly denied any connection with, or interest in, TNT. No discouragement could put them off." – Menuhin, Moshe. The Decadence of Judaism in Our Time. Beirut: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1969. Print. 73-74.
[54] Kolsky 12.
[55] While this subterfuge was used in the beginning years, the goal was to create a state, as Felix Frankfurter wrote: " 'I need not tell you that the phrase, 'that Palestine be established as a Jewish Home' was a phrase of purposeful ambiguity." [John, p. 118]. In the Zionists' Memorandum to the Peace Conference they stated that Palestine "shall be placed under such political, administrative and economic conditions as will ensure the establishment therein of the Jewish national home and ultimately render possible the creation of an autonomous Jewish commonwealth. [John, p. 125]
[56] John, p. 115
[57] Harry Emerson Fosdick Fosdick was considered to be "the most celebrated preacher of his day." One biographer called him "the most influential interpreter of religion to his generation." Christianity Today Link
Henry Sloane Coffin, a prominent theologian featured on the cover of Time magazine, was also the uncle of William Sloane Coffin, one of America's most famous clergymen, "considered by some to be one of America's great moral and religious leaders."
William also opposed Israeli actions.
[58] Merkley, Paul Charles. Christian Attitudes towards the State of Israel. Montreal: McGill-Queen's UP, 2001. Print. 6.
[59] Mulhall, 76-77; John, 129; Davidson, 20.
[62] Hadawi, Sami. Bitter Harvest: Palestine between 1914-1979. New-York: Caravan, 1979. Print. 17-18.
[63] Mulhall, p. 79.
[64] Mulhall, 78.
[65] Grose, 88.
[67] Melvin Urofsky, cited in Mulhall, 80
[68] Mulhall, p. 80.
[70] The man who is often called the father of the political Zionist movement that led to the creation of Israel was Theodore Herzl, a Jewish journalist born in Budapest. Herz's views of Jews and anti-Semitism were seminal to this movement (p.17) and were espoused in his books and diaries. These show Herzl grappling with "the Jewish question," espousing views that alternated between negative and grandiose views of Jews.
Herzl believed that anti-Semitism resulted wherever Jews went. In The Jewish State: Theodore Herzl, published by the American Zionist Emergency Council, Louis Lipsky writes: "[Herzl] saw the Jews in every land encircled by enemies, hostility to them growing with the increase in their numbers." (p.15) Herzl felt that the current situation of Jews, largely living in ghettos, had created an abnormal culture, writing, "If the Jews are to be transformed into men of character in a reasonable period of time, say ten or twenty years, or even forty... it cannot be done without migration." (p.36) The book's summary of a biography by Alex Bein states: "[Herzl] admitted the substance of the anti-Semitic accusation which linked the Jew with money; he defended the Jew as the victim of a long historic process for which the Jew was not responsible" and quotes Herzl: "The ghetto, which was not of our making, bred in us certain anti-social qualities... Our original character cannot have been other than magnificent and proud."(p.31)
In his book, The Jewish State, Herzl wrote: "Anti-Semitism increases day by day and hour by hour among the nations; indeed, it is bound to increase, because the causes of its growth continue to exist and cannot be removed. Its remote cause is our loss of the power of assimilation during the Middle Ages; its immediate cause is our excessive production of mediocre intellects, who cannot find an outlet downwards or upwards–that is to say, no wholesome outlet in either direction. When we sink, we become a revolutionary proletariat, the subordinate officers of all revolutionary parties; and at the same time, when we rise, there rises also our terrible power of the purse."(p. 91) Later in the book he writes: "If his majesty the Sultan were to give us Palestine, we could in return undertake to regulate the whole finance of Turkey." (p. 96)
Ironically, many feel that Zionism, sometimes intentionally and sometimes unintentionally, actually resulted in increased anti-Semitism. Dr. Judah Magnes, a founder of Hebrew University in Jerusalem, later wrote: "We had always thought that Zionism would diminish anti-Semitism in the world. We are witness to the opposite." – Lilienthal, Price, p.41.
[71] While this "ingathering" is often construed as a "return" to the region, a number of authors provide evidence suggesting that some, perhaps most, European Jews are not descendants of the ancient Israelites, but of conversions that took place in other parts of the world, including in central Asia in the eighth century. For more information see Arthur Koestler's The Thirteenth Tribe: The Khazar Empire and Its Heritage, Lilienthal's "What Price Israel, Shlomo Sand's The Invention of the Jewish People, and the website and books by Kevin Alan Brook: http://khazaria.com/ .
[72] Lilienthal, Price, p.146.
[73] He was admitted to the Foreign Service in 1907 with the highest grades of those entering that year. One commentator called him "one of the greatest diplomatists the USA has had in two generations." Wikipedia, accessed Feb. 16, 2012: Letter to Michael Francis Gibson, February 14, 1955, copy on file at the Hoover Institution.
[74] Neff, p. 20. Grose, 94-95.
[75] Fallen Pillars, p. 20, Grose, 94-95.
[76] Fallen Pillars, 20
[77] The article "Denying Nazi-Zionist collusion: The Sacramento Bee, Darrell Steinberg, and Islamophobia" refers to the various books that described this:http://ifamericansknew.org/media/sacbee.html
This was well known in the State Department. For example, State Dept. Near East expert Harry N. Howard states: "…there was discussion of liberalizing American immigration laws in this period. The Zionists opposed that liberalization on the ground that this would not be a solution as far as they were concerned. They wanted a political, not necessarily a humanitarian, solution --that is, they wanted a state." - Oral History Interview with Harry N. Howard, Truman Library, Washington, D.C., June 5, 1973:
[78] Bernard Baruch's refugee proposal in spring 1938 (opposed by Brandeis, Frankfurter, and Stephen Wise); The July 1938 Evian Conference on Refugees; the Inter-Governmental Committee on Refugees. Mulhall reports: "Thus, even after the intensification of Nazi persecution of the Jews, and with the likelihood of a major war breaking out, the Zionists forewent the possibility of other havens in favor of Palestine." Mulhall, 102-104.
[79] Mullhall, 109, reports: "During 1943, with immigration to Palestine limited, Roosevelt made several efforts to open up many free-world nations, including America, to refugees. However, Zionists against opposed his plans because they did not include Palestine." Lilienthal provides details on these efforts in What Price Israel, pp. 26-27.
[80] Early in 1947 the British government proposed a plan that would have allowed 100,000 Jews to go to Palestine over two years, and subsequent admissions depending on absorptive capacity, but the Jewish Agency spurned it because it wanted unlimited immigration. Lilienthal, What Price Israel, p. 26.
[81] Mulhall, 109.
[82] Lilienthal, Alfred M. What Price Israel? 50th Anniversary ed. Haverford, PA: Infinity.com, 2004. Print. 27. Citing So Far So Good, by Morris L. Ernst (New York: Harper, 1948), pp. 170-177.
[83] Mulhall, P. 109.
[84] Hadawi, 38: Citation: The Spectator (London) Magazine, 22 July 1960.
[85] Landman, S. Great Britain, the Jews and Palestine. London: New Zionist, 1936. Print.
[86] Lilienthal, Price, 151. Lilienthal goes on to report: "Despite these warnings, Zionist gents effectively produced trouble in Iraq. Rabbi Sassoon himself was badly beaten by co-religionists."
[87] Eveland, Wilbur. Ropes of Sand: America's Failure in the Middle East. London: W.W. Norton, 1980. Print. 48.
For more on Eveland see Barrett, Mary. "In Memoriam: A Respectful Dissenter: CIA's Wilbur Crane Eveland." Washington Report on Middle East Affairs March (1990). 28.
[88] Naeim, Gilad. "The Jews of Iraq." The Link April-May (1998). Print.http://www.ifamericansknew.org/history/ref-giladi.html
[89] Berger, Elmer. Memoirs of an Anti-Zionist Jew. Beirut: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1978. 9 – Originally there had been two organizations, the United Palestine Appeal (the main Zionist fund-raising effort in the U.S.) and the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, which was dominated by non-Zionists and which raised more money. Its purpose was to "provide assistance to Jews in the countries in which hey lived, hoping to facilitate their eventual integration into those societies." Berger reports, "Never at a loss for maneuver – or dissembling– however, the Zionist manager persuaded the "big givers" that a "united campaign" would be more efficient than the competing, double campaigns, and managed to push through the creation of the United Jewish Appeal.
[90] Christison, 73. Evan M. Wilson (p. 134) reports that Zionists, wishing in Feb. 1948 to pressure the U.S. government to support partition and end its arms embargo, raised $35 million for the United Jewish Appeal in just two weeks.
[91] Neff, 23.
[92] Tivnan, Edward. The Lobby: Jewish Political Power and American Foreign Policy. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1987. Print. 24.
[93] Tivnan, 24
[94] Neff, 23.
[95] Berger, 11.
[96] Stevens, 101.
[97] Berger, Memoirs, p.17.
[98] Wright, 25.
[99] Lilienthal, 63.
[100] Stevens, 24.
[101] Stevens, 22.
[102] Lilienthal
[103] Urofsky, Melvin Irving. We Are One: American Jewry and Israel. Garden City, N.Y: Anchor/Doubleday, 1978. Print. 37.
[104] Herbert Hoover: "Message to the American Palestine Committee," January 17, 1932. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project.http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=23121.
"American Palestine Committee." Entry from the Encyclopaedia of Zionism and Israel (ed Patai). Web. 04 Apr. 2012. http://www.iahushua.com/Zion/zionhol10.html
[105] Neff, 23-24.
[106] Grose, 173.
[107] Neff, 23.
[108] Stevens, 28.
[109] Researchers may wish to explore an interesting though speculative discussion about what may be an earlier effort by Zionists to influence Christians. Many years before AZEC targeted Christians, an annotated version of the bible known as the Scofield Reference Bible had been published, which pushed what was a previously somewhat fringe "dispensationalist" theology calling for the Jewish "return" to Palestine.
Some analysts have raised questions about Scofield and how and why the Oxford University Press published his book. Scofield, a Texas preacher who had been something of a shyster and criminal and had abandoned his first wife and children, mysteriously became a member of an exclusive New York men's club in 1901. Biographer Joseph Canfield (The Incredible Scofield and His book) comments:
"The admission of Scofield to the Lotus Club, which could not have been sought by Scofield, strengthens the suspicion that has cropped up before, that someone was directing the career of C. I. Scofield."
Canfield suggests that Wall Street lawyer Samuel Untermeyer, who was also a member of the Lotus Club, may have played a role in Scofield's project, writing that "Scofield's theology was most helpful in getting Fundamentalist Christians to back the international interest in one of Untermeyer's pet projects – the Zionist Movement."
Prof. David W. Lutz, in "Unjust War Theory: Christian Zionism and the Road to Jerusalem," writes: "Untermeyer used Scofield, a Kansas city lawyer with no formal training in theology, to inject Zionist ideas into American Protestantism. Untermeyer and other wealthy and influential Zionists whom he introduced to Scofield promoted and funded the latter's career, including travel in Europe."
According to the Untermeyer Gardens Conservancy website, Untermeyer "was a partner in the law firm of Guggenheimer, Untermyer & Marshall, and was the first lawyer in America to earn a one million dollar fee on a single case. He was also an astute investor, and became extremely wealthy.
He was instrumental in the establishment of the Federal Reserve System, was an influential Democrat and a close ally of Woodrow Wilson.
The bio continues: "Samuel Untermyer was one of the most prominent Jews of his day in America. He was a prominent Zionist, and was President of the Keren Hayesod. In addition, he was the national leader of an unsuccessful movement in the early 1930's for a worldwide boycott of Germany, and called for the destruction of Hitler's regime."
Irish journalist Maidhc O Cathail ("Zionism's Un-Christian Bible") suggests
"Absent such powerful connections, it is hard to imagine 'this peer among scalawags' ever getting a contract with Oxford University Press to publish his bible."
[110] Abu-Sitta, Salman H. Atlas of Palestine, 1917-1966. London: Palestine Land Society, 2010. Print.
McCarthy, Justin. The Population of Palestine: Population History and Statistics of the Late Ottoman Period and the Mandate. New York: Columbia UP, 1990. Print.
Khalidi, Walid. All That Remains: the Palestinian Villages Occupied and Depopulated by Israel in 1948. Washington, DC: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1992. Print.
A Survey of Palestine. Prepared in December 1945 and January 1946 for the Information of the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry, by the British Mandatory Commission, 1946. Washington, D.C.: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1991. Two volumes. Print.
Supplement to Survey of Palestine Notes Compiled for the Information of the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine. Washington, D.C.: Inst. of Palestine Studies, 1991. Print.
[111] Pappé, Ilan. The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine. Oxford: Oneworld, 2007.
Nur, Masalha. Expulsion of the Palestinians: The Concept of "transfer" in Zionist Political Thought, 1882-1948. Fourth ed. Washington, DC: Inst. for Palestine Studies, 2001.
Qumsiyeh, Mazin B. Sharing the Land of Canaan: Human Rights and the Israeli-Palestinian Struggle. London: Pluto, 2004.
Qumsiyeh, Mazin. Palestinian Refugees Right to Return and Repatriation. If Americans Knew, Print.
[112] For example, early Zionist leader Ze'ev (Vladimir) Jabotinsky noted, "Every indigenous people will resist alien settlers..." Shlaim, p. 13.
[113] Howe, Russell Warren. "Fighting the 'Soldiers of Occupation' From WWII to the Intifada." Seeing the Light: Personal Encounters with the Middle East and Islam." Edited by Richard H. Curtiss and Janet McMahon. Washington, D.C.: American Educational Trust, 1997. Pp. 38-39. Warren and his film crew were filming an interview with Begin in 1974. "The red light had come on, under the lens. Without preamble, I turned my shoulder to the camera, stared straight into Begin's eyes, and asked: "How does it feel, in the light of all that's going on, to be the father of terrorism in the Middle East?"
"In the Middle East?" he bellowed, in his thick, cartoon accent. "In all the world."
[114] "Charter, United Nations, Chapter I, Purposes and Principles." UN News Center. UN, n.d. Web. 02 Jan. 2013. http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/chapter1.shtml
[115] "The Avalon Project : UN General Assembly Resolution 181." The Avalon Project : UN General Assembly Resolution 181. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Jan. 2013.http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/un/res181.htm
BBC News. BBC, 29 Nov. 2001. Web. 03 Jan. 2013. BBC New Link
[116] Neff. Fallen Pillars, 31
[117] Chomsky, Noam. The Fateful Triangle: The United States, Israel, and the Palestinians. "In internal discussion in 1938 [David Ben-Gurion] stated that 'after we become a strong force, as a result of the creation of a state, we shall abolish partition and expand into the whole of Palestine'"
[118] Neff. Fallen Pillars, 31
[119] Neff, Fallen Pillars, 46.
[120] Berger, 21.
Berger writes that in a personal conversation with him, Henderson had said:
"I hope you and your associates will persevere. And my reason for wishing this is perhaps less related to what I consider American interests in the Middle East than what I fear I see on the domestic scene. The United states is a great power. Somehow it will surmount even its most foolish policy errors in the Middle East. But in the process there is a great danger of creating divisiveness and anti-Semitism among our own people. And if this danger materializes to a serious extent, we have seen in Germany and in Europe that the ability of a nation to survive the consequences is in serious question."
[121] Neff, 46. Wilson, Decision,117. Wright also confirms this, 21.
[122] Green, Stephen. Taking Sides, America's Secret Relations with a Militant Israel. Brattleboro: Amana, 1988. Print. p. 20.
[123] Grady, Henry F. Adventures in Diplomacy, p. 170. Unpublished manuscript in the Truman Library, which can be viewed at: Truman Library Link
Grady, Henry Francis, and John T. McNay. The Memoirs of Ambassador Henry F. Grady: from the Great War to the Cold War. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri, 2009. Print.
[124] Grady, Adventures,166.
Benzion Netanyahu, a Zionist who travelled to the US from Palestine to propagandize Americans and father of future Israeli Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu, tried – unsuccessfully – to use the Cold War as a rationale for the U.S. to support Israel. Netanyhu believed that "arguments appealing to American fears of Soviet expansion" would be the best way to win over U.S. officials. He used this argument in 1947 in meetings with Loy Henderson and General Dwight Eisenhower, but found no takers. Medoff, p. 146.
[125] Mulhall. P.130.
Beisner, Robert L. Dean Acheson: a Life in the Cold War. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2006. Print. accessed at: Google Books Link
[126] Neff, Fallen Pillars, pp. 42-43.
[127] Neff, Fallen Pillars, p. 65, citation: "Draft Memorandum by the Director of the Office of United Nations Affairs (Rusk) to the Under Secretary of State (Lovett)," Secret, Washington May 4, 1948, FRUS 1948, pp. 894-95.
[128] Wilson, p. 131
[129] Neff, Fallen Pillars, p. 63, citation: "Memorandum of Conversation by Secretary of State," Top Secret, May 12, 1948, FRUS 1948, pp 975-76
[130] Ibid
[131] Neff, Fallen Pillars, 29.
Author John Snetsinger writes: "Truman's Palelstine-Israel policy offers an extraordinary example of foreign policy conducted in line with short-range political expediency rather than long-range national goals." Snetsinger, John. Truman, the Jewish Vote, and the Creation of Israel. Stanford Calif.: Stanford Univ., 1974. Print. 140.
[132] When Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Jr., a young Congressman, warned that the democratic party would lose if an anti-partition plan were proposed, Forrestal responded: "I think it is about time that somebody should pay some consideration to whether we might not lose the United States." [Lilienthal, p. 75]
Zionists attacked Forrestal, who had been a WWI Naval aviator, venomously, and Berger recalls that Forrestal became "the favorite whipping boy of the Zionist-dominated press."
Zionist Walter Winchell and pro-Soviet Drew Pearson (Forrestal also opposed Stalin) launched vicious personal attacks. [Lilienthal, p. 75] At odds with Truman on a number of issues, in 1949 Forrestal was hospitalized in the National Naval Medical Center with a diagnosis of severe depression, where it was reported that he committed suicide. His brother, a businessman, did not believe this cause of death. A number of authors and analysts question this conclusion. [Martin, David. "Who Killed James Forrestal?" DC Dave. N.p., 10 Nov. 20. Web. 17 June 2012. http://www.dcdave.com/article4/021110.html]
[133] Neff, Fallen Pillars, p. 57.
[134] Ball, George W., and Douglas B. Ball. The Passionate Attachment: America's Involvement with Israel, 1947 to the Present. New York: W.W. Norton, 1992. Print. 22. Some examples:
Edwin Mr. Wright, a State Department expert on the Middle East who was assisting the U.N./U.S. delegation as a staff member, reports that Eleanor Roosevelt, who was on the U.N. delegation, received a letter telling her that Wright was "anti-Semitic and in Arab pay." – p. 43.
"Rabbi Stephen Wise, the pre-eminent spokesman for American Zionism, and his daughter Justine Polier, were personal friends of Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt with as much access to the White House as anyone." - William J. vanden Heuvel, "America, Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Holocaust." Keynote address of the fifth annual Franklin & Eleanor Roosevelt Distinguished Lecture, Oct. 17, 1996 at Roosevelt University in Chicago.
http://newdeal.feri.org/feri/wvh.htm [accessed July 22, 2011]
Lilienthal, p. 62: Eleanor Roosevelt, convinced by Zionists of their cause, had strongly opposed Loy Henderson. When Henderson had warned, accurately, that partition would provoke violence, Eleanor responded:
"Come now, come, Mr. Henderson, I think you're exaggerating the dangers. You are too pessimistic….I'm confident that when a Jewish state is once set up, the Arabs will see the light; they will quiet down; and Palestine will no longer be a problem." (Neff, Fallen Pillars, 64) (Wilson, 116)
There is no evidence that Eleanor ever acknowledged her error.
[135] Neff, Fallen Pillars, p. 50
[136] Gore Vidal wrote: "Sometime in the late 1950s, that world-class gossip and occasional historian, John F. Kennedy, told me how, in 1948, Harry S. Truman had been pretty much abandoned by everyone when he came to run for president. Then an American Zionist brought him two million dollars in cash, in a suitcase, aboard his whistle-stop campaign train. 'That's why our recognition of Israel was rushed through so fast.'" --Foreword, Shahak, Israel. Jewish History, Jewish Religion: the Weight of Three Thousand Years. London [etc].: Pluto, 1997. Print. pp. vii-viii
[137] "Abraham Feinberg's FBI File." Abraham "Abe" Feinberg. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Jan. 2013. http://www.irmep.org/ila/feinberg/
[138] "Truman Library - Abraham Feinberg Oral History Interview." Truman Library - Abraham Feinberg Oral History Interview. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Jan. 2013.http://www.trumanlibrary.org/oralhist/feinberg.htm
[139] Smith, Grant F. Declassified Deceptions: the Secret History of Isaiah L. Kenen and the Rise of the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC). Washington, D.C.: Institute for Research: Middle Eastern Policy, 2007. Print. 34.
"The Israel Lobby Archive." Institute for Research: Middle Eastern Policy:http://irmep.org/ILA/default.asp
Ball, p. 24: "This weapons smuggling and other Zionist preparations for war were well-known to British and American analysts, who knew from the beginning that the Arabs would be certain losers in a war with Zionists, whose well-trained and armed combatants would outnumber the Arabs' similar combatants by at least four to one. Analysts were also aware that the Zionists planned to expand beyond the partition allotment."
[140] Lilienthal, pp.71-72.
Snetsinger provides a number of details on Niles' close relationship with Zionists and quotes his memos on their behalf. 35-31, etc.
[141] Lilienthal, pp. 72-73.
Stephen Green, in Taking Sides, pp. 53-54, describes a May 1948 investigation into "someone in the Pentagon" who was making files available to the pre-Israeli military known as the Haganah. Evidence pointed to Lt. Col. Elliot A. Niles. "According to the agent report on the investigation," Green writes, "Niles was 'an ardent Zionist, formerly a high official of the B'nai B'rith, and lately in charge of veterans liaison for the Veterans Administration.'" Investigators concluded that Niles and another person had photostated files and sent them to the Haganah. "This particular report" Green writes, "was adjudged by its author to be rated A-2, i.e., A for 'source completely reliable,' and 2 for 'information probably true.'"
[142] Lilienthal, What Price Israel, 72.
[143] Christison, 69
[144] Wright, Edwin M. The Great Zionist Cover-up: a Study and Interpretation. Cleveland, OH: Northeast Ohio Committee on Middle East Understanding, 1975. Print. Pp. v, 11-12.
Wright was General staff G-2 Middle East specialist, Washington, 1945-46; Bureau Near East-South Asian-African Affairs Department of State, since 1946, country specialist 1946-47, advisor U.N. affairs, 1947-50, advisor on intelligence 1950-55. He retired from the State Department in 1966.
Wright reports that "all the Near East-Africa most secret documents had been routed to Sam Rosenman."
[145] Wilson, Decision, 149.
Wilson served in the U.S. Foreign Service from 1937-67, many of those years involved with Palestine. Upon retirement he was given the Department of State's Superior Honor Award.
[146] Wilson, p. 98.
[147] Neff, Fallen Pillars, 96.
[148] Lilienthal, p. 47, citation: Emanuel Newmann, in American Zionist, February 5, 1953.
[149] Wilson, pp. 125-127. Mulhall, pp.140-145. Bitter Harvest: Palestine 1914-1979, by Sami Hadawi, Caravan Books, 1979, pp. 72-73. Stevens, pp. 178-182.
[150] Lilienthal, pp. 47-49
[151] Lilienthal, Alfred M. The Zionist Connection: What Price Peace? New York: Dodd, Mead, 1978. Print. p. 87.
[152] See United National General Assembly Resolution 181, The Avalon Project at Yale Law School online at http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/un/res181.htm
[153] The Arab armies were from Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Transjordan, and Egypt. There were also a small number of combatants from Saudi Arabia and the Sudan who entered the war later.
While the popular belief is that Zionists/Israelis were fighting against a vastly larger force, this is yet another myth that proves to be false upon close examination. Stephen Green, inTaking Sides, pages 65-75, provides a detailed examination of the comparative numbers of forces, the reports on the situation by US and British military, intelligence, and diplomatic experts at the time, and how the myth was created.
See also the section on this subject at Palestine Remembered Link
[154] Marton, Kati. A Death in Jerusalem. New York: Arcade, 1996. Print.
Schoenberg, Shira. "The Assassination of Count Bernadotte." The Assassination of Count Bernadotte. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 June 2012.http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/folke.html
[155] Al Abbasiyya (4 May '48), Abu Shusha (14 May '48), Ayn az Zaytun (2 May '48), Balad ash Sheikh (25 April '48), Bayt Daras (11 May '48), Beer Sheba (21 Oct '48), Burayr (12 May '48), Al Dawayima (29 Oct '48), Deir Yassin (9 April '48), Eilaboun (29 Oct '48), Haifa (21 April '48), Hawsha (15 April '48), Husayniyya (21 April '48), Ijzim (24 July '48), Isdud (28 Oct '48), Jish (29 Oct '48), Al Kabri (21 May '48), Al Khisas (18 Dec '48), Khubbayza (12 May '48), Lydda (10 July '48), Majd al Kurum (29 October '48), Mannsurat al Khayt (18 Jan '48), Khirbet, Nasir ad Din (12 April '48), Qazaza (9 July '48), Qisarya (15 Feb '48), Sa'sa (30 Oct '48), Safsaf (29 Oct '48), Saliha (30 Oct '48), Arab al Samniyya (30 Oct '48), Al Tantoura (21 May '48), Al Tira (16 July '48), Al Wa'ra al-Sawda (18 April '48), Wadi 'Ara (27 Feb '48).
"Palestinian Refugees Right to Return and Repatriation," by Mazin Qumsiyeh, PhD.http://ifamericansknew.org/history/ref-qumsiyeh.html
[156] Christison, p. 81.
Numerous other histories of this period also report on this. See Stephen Green, Taking Sides, 47-75, for a discussion of troop strengths, armaments, and Zionist efforts, largely successful, to distort the facts on these in the press and in various books, including O Jerusalem, by Larry Collins and Dominique Lapierre," still widely marketed.
Another is George Ball's The Passionate Attachment, p. 24: "America's diplomats… knew from the beginning that the Arabs were certain losers in their war with Israel. Every source confirmed the overwhelming military superiority of the Israelis over their Arab opponents." He goes on to give specific details.
[157] There are numerous excellent books on this period. Three of the finest are: Sami Hadawi, Bitter Harvest: Palestine 1914-1979; Nur Masalha, Expulsion of the Palestinians: The Concept of "Transfer" in Zionist Political Thought, 1882-1948; and Ilan Pappe, The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine.
While Israeli propaganda maintained that the refugees had left "voluntarily," and had been ordered to leave by Arab leaders, this was refuted by both the refugees themselves and by journalist Erskine Childers. Childers examined all radio broadcasts from the time and found that none had called for Palestinians to leave; in fact leaders had often urged people to stay in Palestine. He also refuted other Zionist allegations concerning the refugees; see Childers, Erskine. "The Other Exodus." Spectator (May 12, 1961): 672-75.
[158] Violence between Zionists and Palestinians began in the 1920s, with both sides at times killing civilians. Palestinian uprisings against Zionist colonialism occurred in 1920 and 1929, and against the British in 1936. Zionists created the Hagana in 1920 (Pappe, Ethnic, p. 16); the Irgun Zvai Leumi was founded in 1931, split off from the Haganah; the Stern Gang was founded in 1940; (Pappe, Ethnic, p. 45). Betar, a youth movement was founded by Jabotinsky in 1923 in Europe, with training camps dotted about Europe. Historian J. Bowyer Bell, in Terror out of Zion, p. 20-21, reports that members who went to Palestine foresaw "Zion redeemed through a blood sacrifice." In the 1930s the Irgun perpetrated a number of attacks on Palestinian civilians.
Pappe writes (Ethnic, 16) that the 1936 Arab revolt gave the Hagana a chance to practice military tactics "mostly in the form of retaliatory operations against such targets as roadside snipers for thieves taking goods from a kibbutz. The main objective, however, seems to have been to intimidate Palestinian communities who happened to live in proximity to Jewish settlements."
[159] Neff, Fallen Pillars, p. 68.
[160] Mulhall, p. 153.
Albert Einstein, Hannah Arendt, and a number of others wrote a letter to the New York Times condemning this and other actions by Begin and his group. The letter, which was published December 4, 1948, provides considerable information on the situation:
[161] The Passionate Attachment, America's Involvement with Israel, 1947 to the Present, by George W. Ball and Douglas B. Ball, pp. 28-29. George Ball (who had been undersecretary of state under Johnson and Kennedy, and ambassador to the United Nations) writes that the Red Cross representative Jacques de Reynier found that 150 of the bodies had been thrown into a cistern.
Reynier later wrote a book on his experiences, but for many years this was out of print and has never been translated into English. It was recently reissued in French. For a review seePersee Link
[162] The Passionate Attachment, America's Involvement with Israel, 1947 to the Present, by George W. Ball and Douglas B. Ball, pp. 28-29.
[163] McGowan, Daniel. "A Jewish Eye-Witness: An interview with Meir Pa'il." McGowan, Daniel A., and Marc H. Ellis. Remembering Deir Yassin: the Future of Israel and Palestine. New York: Olive Branch, 1998. Print. 35-46.
Israeli military historian Col Pa'il, who was then a member of the Haganah, was there as an observer to evaluate the fighting ability of the Irgun and Stern Gang.
[164] Mulhall 153.
See also Sheila Cassidy, "Assault and Massacre." Remembering Deir Yassin. Daniel McGowan and Marc H. Ellis. 47-49.
From the same book see also Pat McDonnel Twair, "The Surviving Children of Deir Yassin" 50-51.
Survivor testimonies can be read at
http://www.deiryassin.org/survivors.html [accessed July 21, 2011]
e.g.: Ms. Haleem Eid stated: "A man [shot] a bullet into the neck of my sister Salhiyeh who was nine months pregnant. Then he cut her stomach open with a butcher's knife."
[165] Menachem Begin, who became prime minister in 1977, was head of the Irgun; Yitzhak Shamir, who was elected Prime Minister in 1983, was a head of the Stern Gang. Neither was at Deir Yassin personally. The attack was coordinated ahead of time with the Haganah, which thereby broke an agreement that had been made with the mayor of Deir Yassin in which both sides had agreed that neither would fire against the other. The Haganah's Palmach unit took part in the attack, but reportedly left before the worst of the massacre.
–McGowan, Daniel. "A Jewish Eye-Witness: An interview with Meir Pa'il." Remembering Deir Yassin, 35-46.
[166] Ball, p. 29.
Author Kathleen Christison notes that when Begin became Prime Minister, for the U.S. media "it became generally unacceptable to use the word [terrorist] with respect to either Begin or his successor Yitzhak Shamir, whose pre-state underground organization, the Stern Gang, had also committed acts of terrorism." – Perceptions of Palestine, 172
Shamir had approved the pre-Israel assassination of UN mediator Folke Bernadotte, a Swedish Count who had helped rescue thousands of Jews from the Nazis. He had also ordered the assassination of a top British official, Lord Moyne.
See Kati Marton's book on the assassination of Bernadotte, Marton, Kati. A Death in Jerusalem. New York: Arcade, 1996: In 1991 some of the assassins regaled the audience of a live TV broadcast with details about how they cut down the United Nations's first Middle East mediator. Shamir is the longest-serving prime minister of Israel and "frequently stated that his time as Lehi commander was the best time of his life." (Marton, 257) His adopted name "Shamir" in Hebrew "means either a particularly hard rock or, according to legend, a tiny worm that broke up rocks for the construction of the Temple." (Marton 102)
[167] July 22, 1946.
[168] In response to the bombing of the King David Hotel, Hecht wrote: "Every time you let go with your guns at the British betrayers of your homeland, the Jews of America make a little holiday in their hearts...Brave friends, we are working to help you. We are raising funds for you." - Lilienthal, What Price Israel? p. 33. Philo, Berry, More Bad News from Israel, p. 29.
The bombing killed 41 Palestinians, 28 British, and 17 Jews. - Neff, Fallen Pillars, p. 40.
[169] Lilienthal, What Price Israel? P. 79.
[170] In response to the bombing of the King David Hotel, Hecht wrote: "Every time you let go with your guns at the British betrayers of your homeland, the Jews of America make a little holiday in their hearts." - Lilienthal, What Price Israel? 33.
The bombing killed 41 Palestinians, 28 British, and 17 Jews. - Neff, Fallen Pillars, 40.
[171] Howe, Russell Warren. "Fighting the 'Soldiers of Occupation' From WWII to the Intifada." Seeing the Light: Personal Encounters with the Middle East and Islam." Edited by Richard H. Curtiss and Janet McMahon. Washington, D.C.: American Educational Trust, 1997. Pp. 38-39. Also see footnote #104.
[172] Others were the "Hebrew Committee for National Liberation," the Committee for a Jewish Army of Palestinian and Stateless Jews," the "Hebrew Committee for National Liberation," and "League for a Free Palestine."
[173] Medoff, Rafael. "The Bergson Group vs. The Holocaust – and Jewish Leaders vs. Bergson." The Jewish Press June 6 (2007).
Among the groups they formed were "American League for a Free Palestine," "Hebrew Committee for National Liberation," and "the Emergency Committee for the Rescue of European Jewry", often with a dual message: demanding the rescue of European Jews and the opening up of Palestine to Jewish immigration. Most Zionist and anti-Zionist organizations opposed the Bergson group, but it managed to enlist a number of prominent Americans, from Ben Hecht to Eleanor Roosevelt.
Goliath Link [accessed July 23, 2011]
The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum states:
"Bergson's primary assignment in the United States was to mobilize support for the IZL and for the creation of Jewish military units, and, later to gather support for the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine. Bergson set out to accomplish these tasks by creating a series of interlocking organizations, including the Committee for a Jewish Army of Stateless and Palestinian Jews, the American League for a Free Palestine, the Emergency Committee to Save the Jewish People of Europe, and the Hebrew Committee for National Liberation, Committee for a Jewish Army of Palestinian and Stateless Jews,
Supporters of these organizations included Harry Truman, Dorothy Parker, Herbert Hoover, Will Rogers, Jr., Labor leader William Green, U.S. Solicitor General Fowler Harper, and U.S. Interior Secretary Harold Ickes."
[174] Baumel, 268-270.
[175] United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. "Peter Bergson." Holocaust Encyclopedia. Http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007041. Accessed July, 2011:
[176] Medoff, Militant Zionism in America, p. 192.
Ben Hecht also mentions this funding in his article praising Zionist violence against the British, Letter to the Terrorists of Palestine: "Brave friends we are working to help you. We are raising money for you." Philo, Berry, More Bad News from Israel, p. 29.
[177] Baumel, p.xix.
[178] For some of their violence against Jews and others in Palestine, see Raider, Mark A. "Irresponsible, Undisciplined Opposition": Ben Halpern on the Bergson Group and Jewish Terrorism in Pre-State Palestine." American Jewish History 92.3 (2004): 313-60. Also online.
[179] Baumel, 114-115.
[180] Rubinstein, William D. The Myth of Rescue: Why the Democracies Could Not Have Saved More Jews from the Nazis. London: Routledge, 1997. Print. 97.
[181] Baumel, 220. Judah Magnes, a Reform rabbi, favored a binational state in which Jews and Palestinians would coexist in friendly relations.
[182] Rubinstein, Myth, 98.
[183] Rosen, Robert N. Saving the Jews: Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Holocaust, p. 32.
[184] Baumel, p. 261. See also Rubinstein, Myth, 98.
[185] Baumel, p. 123.
[186] Baumel, 258-259.
[187] Medoff, p. 186.
[188] Baumel, 225.
[189] "Time Line for Rabbi Avraham Yitzchak Kook (1865-1935)." Rabbi Kook on Weekly Torah Portion (Parsha), Jewish Holidays and Psalms (Tehillim). Web. July 2011.http://www.ravkooktorah.org/timeline.htm
Shahak, Israël, and Norton Mezvinsky. Jewish Fundamentalism in Israel. London: Pluto, 1999. Print. ix, xiii, 55-69.
Professors Shahak and Mezvinski emphasize that writings in English intentionally obscure many facts. "The role of Satan, whose earthly embodiment according to the Cabbala is every non-Jew, has been minimized or not mentioned by authors who have not written about the Cabbala in Hebrew." (p. 58)
"According to the Lurianic Cabbala, the world was created solely for the sake of Jews; the existence of non-Jews was subsidiary."
Dr. Israel Shahak, was a holocaust survivor and, until his death in 2001, a highly regarded Israeli professor of biochemistry; Dr. Norton Mezvinsky was a professor of history (now retired) who in 2002 was named by the Connecticut State University Board of Trustees an official "Connecticut State University Professor...a signal honor, reserved for faculty members who fulfill the highest ideals of outstanding teaching, scholarly achievement and public service."
Another book on this subject matter is Shahak, Israel. Jewish History, Jewish Religion: the Weight of Three Thousand Years. London [etc]: Pluto, 1997. Print., which can be read athttp://ifamericansknew.org/cur_sit/shahak.html
[190] Shahak, Israël, and Norton Mezvinsky. Jewish Fundamentalism in Israel. London: Pluto, 1999. Print. ix, xiii, 55-69.
Professors Shahak and Mezvinski emphasize that writings in English intentionally obscure many facts. For example, they state: "The role of Satan, whose earthly embodiment according to the Cabbala is every non-Jew, has been minimized or not mentioned by authors who have not written about the Cabbala in Hebrew." (p. 58) "According to the Lurianic Cabbala, the world was created solely for the sake of Jews; the existence of non-Jews was subsidiary."
Dr. Shahak was a holocaust survivor and, until his death in 2001, a highly regarded Israeli professor of biochemistry; Dr. Norton Mezvinsky was a professor of history (now retired) who in 2002 was named by the Connecticut State University Board of Trustees an official "Connecticut State University Professor...a signal honor, reserved for faculty members who fulfill the highest ideals of outstanding teaching, scholarly achievement and public service."
Another book on this subject matter is Shahak, Israel. Jewish History, Jewish Religion: the Weight of Three Thousand Years. London [etc]: Pluto, 1997. Print, which can be read athttp://ifamericansknew.org/cur_sit/shahak.html
[191] Shahak & Mezvinsky, ix. Kabbala is also spelled: cabbala, cabala, kabala.
Brownfeld, Allan. C. "Book Review: Jewish Fundamentalism in Israel." Washington Report on Middle East Affairs March (2000): 105-06. Print.
[192] Baumel, p. 256.
[193] Korff had immigrated to the U.S. in 1926 from the Ukraine. San Francisco's Jewish Weekly reports that he "was a link in an unbroken chain of rabbis in his family that dated back to the 11th century scholar Rashi. Another ancestor was the Baal Shem Tov, the 18thcentury founder of the Chassidic Movement."-- Stieglitz, Avi V. "Baruch Korff, 'Nixon's Rabbi' and Activist, Dies of Cancer at 81." J Weekly Aug. 4 (1995). Print.
Online at Jewish Weekly Link
[194] Medoff, p. 164.
"THE BERGSON GROUP A History in Photographs." David S. Wyman Institute for Holocaust Studies. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Jan. 2013.http://wymaninstitute.org/special/bergsonexhibit/leadership5.php
[195] Medoff, p. 165.
[196] Medoff, p. 166.
[197] Medoff, p. 166.
[198] Tweedie, Neil, and Peter Day. "Jewish Groups Plotted to Kill Bevin." Telegraph [UK] 22 May 2003. Print.
"MI5 Feared Zionist Air Raid Plan for London." The Journal [Northumberland] 22 May 2003: n. pag. Print. online at Journal Link
UK. National Archives. Possible Jewish Terrorist Attempts to Assassinate Ernest Bevin, Foreign Secretary: Threat ... UK Government Official Archives. Web. Discovery Link
1945 Oct 31 - 1946 Aug 17 Reference: KV 2/3428 – download athttp://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/SearchUI/image/Index/C11602817
[200] Information on this section comes from news reports from the time, a UN report about it (which seems to have disappeared from the UN archives but can be read at http://www.al-nakba-history.com/origins1948/unterrorismc for hronology.html), and a first-person account written by Gilbert himself distributed by the New York Herald Tribune.
[201] AP. "Flyer Credited With Expose of Bombing Plans." Daily Mail [Hagerstown, MD] 9 Sept. 1947: 1. NewspaperARCHIVE Elite. Web. 1 June 2012. Newspaper Archive Link
From unpublished memoir by Reginald Gilbert, pp. 118-127.
[202] Founded by its leader, Avraham Stern, the official name of the group was "Fighters for the Freedom of Israel," or "Lehi" for its Hebrew initials.
[203] e.g.: UP. "French Judge Weighs Bomb Plot." Lima News [Lima, Ohio] 8 Sept. 1947: 1. Web. Newspaper Archive Link
AP. "Hold Rabbi for Questioning in 'Leaflet Bombing' Plot." Schenectedy Gazette 9 Sept. 1940: 1+. Print.
"Yank Flyer Reveals Stern Gang Hired Him to Drop Bombs on British Foreign Office." St. Petersburg Times, AP 10 Sept. 1947. Web. Google News Link
A front page news report from September 9, 1947 in the Australian Argus newspaper, "US pilot told police of bomb plot" can be viewed at:
[204] Gilbert, "St. Louis Pilot Tells How and Why He Foiled Plot to Bomb London". Gilbert also writes about this episode in an unpublished memoir. He also discussed it with the author by phone and in person in 2012.
[205] "Jews Say Bomb Plot Was British Frameup." Lebanon Daily News [Lebanon, Pennsylvania] 11 Sept. 1947: 17. NewspaperArchive. Web. 31 May 2012. Newspaper Archive Link
[206] "Early Release of Rabbi Korff Expected in Paris; U.S. Embassy Makes No Official Move." Jewish Telegraphic Agency Sept. 18 (1947): n. pag. Web. JTA Link
[207] "Question Authenticity Police Version of Plot." Canadian Jewish Chronicle 26 Sept. 1947: 4. Online.
[208] "Zionists Plotted IRA-style Terrorism." Times [London] 22 May 2003. Web. 10 May 2012. http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/news/uk/article1908776.ece
[209] AAP. "Release of Rabbi Sought." Advertiser [Adelaide, SA] 10 Sept. 1947: 1. Print.Online.
Medoff, p. 170. Medoff's account only mentions the part of the plan to do with dropping pamphlets. He omits any mention of Gilbert and of the attempted assassination aspect of the plot.
[210] Some reports placed the mourners at 5,000, e.g.http://www.paulgassfamily.com/section3/iii1/iii1_001.htm
[211] Stevens, 192.
[212] Pace, Eric. "Baruch Korff, 81, Rabbi and Defender of Nixon." New York Times 27 July 1995, Obituaries sec. Print.
[213] Stieglitz, Avi V. "Baruch Korff, 'Nixon's Rabbi' and Activist, Dies of Cancer at 81." J Weekly, JTA Aug. 4 (1995). Print.
Online at Jewish Weekly Link
"...Korff had many supporters in high places in Israel, including Yitzhak Rabin and the formidable Golda Meir. As the Israeli Prime Minister during the Yom Kippur war of 1973 she was immensely grateful to Nixon, with whom she struck up an unlikely though fateful friendship, for the giant American airlift which helped to turn defeat into victory." – Finkelstone, Joseph. "Obituaries: Rabbi Baruch Korff." Independent [London] 3 Aug. 1995:Independent Link
[214] "Rabbi Korf Announces Retirement from Nixon Fund." Spartanburg Herald-Journal, AP29 May 1975: 12. Web. Google News Link
[215] Stieglitz, Avi V. "Baruch Korff, 'Nixon's Rabbi' and Activist, Dies of Cancer at 81." J Weekly, JTA Aug. 4 (1995)
[216] Finkelstone, Joseph. "Obituaries: Rabbi Baruch Korff." Independent [London, England] 3 Aug. 1995. Print. Online at Independent Link
Others also note Korff's access to powerful leaders:
Morgenthau, Henry. Mostly Morgenthaus: A Family History. New York: Ticknor & Fields, 1991. Excerpt: http://www.paulgassfamily.com/section3/iii3/iii3_003.htm#_ftnref5 - Morgenthau calls Korff a "wily expediter, writing: "At a very early age Rabbi Korff had gained the ear and confidence of many prominent American politicians, winning special access to Congressman John McCormack of Massachusetts (then House majority leader, later Speaker) and Senator James M. Mead of New York (the best man at Korff's wedding)."
Prominent columnist Mary McGrory described an event in 1978 attended by generals and high-ranking US Senators: "Return Engagement for Rabbi Korff." St. Petersburg Times 1 Mar. 1978: 12. Web. 3 Jan. 2013. Google Newspapers Link
[217] Slater, p. 124.
Smith, Grant. Chapter 4.
[218] Slater, Leonard, The Pledge, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1970. P. 21-23.
[219] Slater, p. 94-123.
[220] Smith, Grant, p. 63.
Also see the exhibit "Ties that Bind: Washington Area Jews and the Birth of the State of Israel," the Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington. An active supporter of the United Jewish Appeal in the 1940s describes raising money for weapons: "Any contributions that were made had to be made in cash…It was a sort of a hush-hush operation because it was not entirely legal."
Its "Securing the Dream" exhibit states: "Local members of the clandestine Sonneborn Institute held secret meetings to raise money for a Jewish state and its underground army, the Haganah."
The local Zionist youth group, Habonim, helped load weapons onto ships.
Habonim camps are still active today, with seven summer camps across Canada and the US, an Israel summer program, and a year-long program based in Israel. Seehttps://www.habonimdror.org
[221] "Ties that Bind: Washington Area Jews and the Birth of the State of Israel," the Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington:
[222] Smith, 37.
[223] Ibid
[224] Grodzinsky, p. 9.
[225] Grodzinsky, p. 9.
[226] The first survey among Jewish survivors found that 65 percent indicated that they wished to return home, 20 percent wished to go to the US, and 15 percent desired to go to Palestine{ Grodzinsky, Yosef. In the Shadow of the Holocaust: The Struggle between Jews and Zionists in the Aftermath of World War II. P. 41. The Mossad commander was Ze'ev Schind, alias "Danny." Grodzinsky, p. 48.
[227] Lilienthal, What Price Israel, 148-150.
[228] Grodzinsky, p. 49.
[229] Grodzinsky, p. 50.
[230] Grodzinsky, p. 50, citation: "An interview with Ms. Fanny Tirosh (Yossie Peled's and Sarah Gutman's sister), an addendum to ha-Mifgash (The Encounter), Tel-Aviv: Daniela Dinnur, pp. 115-116, 1993. An appendix contains attestations by Peled and his sisters, and of the daughter of the adopting Belgian who had saved them."
[231] Grodzinsky, pp. 50-51.
[233] Grodzinsky, p. 199.
[234] Grodzinsky, p. 210.
[235] P. 212.
[236] Gross, p.209
[237] Grose, 207-210
[238] Grose,177
[239] Grose, 178-182.
[240] For details, see The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine, by Israeli historian Ilan Pappe andUnder the Cover of War: The Zionist Expulsion of the Palestinians, by Rosemarie M. Esber.
[241] Neff, Fallen Pillars, p. 68.
[242] Neff, Fallen Pillars, p. 69. Transjordan's entire government budget at the time was only $5 million.
[243] Neff, Fallen Pillars, p. 69.
[244] Neff, Fallen Pillars, p. 72.
[245] Strindberg, Anders. "Forgotten Christians." American Conservative May 24 (2004). Print. Online at: http://www.amconmag.com/article/2004/may/24/00013/
[246] Neff, Pillars, p. 75.
[247] Neff, Fallen Pillars, pp. 76-77. Citation: George McGhee, Envoy to the Middle World: Adventures in Diplomacy (New York: Harper & Row), 1983) p. 37.
[248] Oral History Interview by Richard D. McKinzie for the Harry S. Truman Library and Museum with Edwin M. Wright. General staff G-2 Middle East specialist, Washington, 1945-46; Bureau Near East-South Asian-African Affairs Department of State, since 1946, country specialist 1946-47, advisor U.N. affairs, 1947-50, advisor on intelligence 1950-55. The interview was conducted in Wooster, Ohio on July 26, 1974. On April 3, 1977 Wright added a letter and footnotes to the interview.
Wright, Edwin M. The Great Zionist Cover-up: a Study and Interpretation. Cleveland, OH: Northeast Ohio Committee on Middle East Understanding, 1975. Print.
[249] Stevens, p. 207.
[250] Christison, p. 40
[251] Neff, Fallen Pillars, 67.
[252] Neff, Fallen Pillars 73. A notable exception were the reports by Anne O'Hare McCormick, a Pulitzer Prize winning foreign news correspondent for the New York Times, who reported that "[Israel] is born at the expense of another people now fated to join the ragged ranks of the displaced" and, in another reported, noted that "no one [in Israel] has expressed any sense of responsibility or sympathy for these wretched victims." (Neff, Fallen Pillars, 72)
[253] Lilienthal, Price, p. 94.
[254] Lilienthal, Price, 103.
[255] Lilienthal, Price, 94
[256] Christison, 81.
[257] Lilienthal, p. 97.
[258] Lilienthal, pp. 97-98
[259] Burrows, Millar. Palestine Is Our Business. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1949. Print. P. 11
[260] Burrows, pp. 11-12.
[261] Burrows, Millar. Palestine Is Our Business. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1949. Print. 62-63.
[262] Burrows, p. 75.
[263] Burrows, p. 131.
[264] Burrows, p. 154.
[265] Burrows, p. 155.
[266] Lilienthal, Price, pp. 97-98.
[267] Lilienthal, Price, p. 97.
[268] Berger, pp. 35-38.
Dean Gildersleeve, a Protestant Christian, had been the only woman member of the U.S. UN delegation in San Francisco. For more information on her see:http://www.vgif.org/a_vg.shtml
[269] Gildersleeve, Virginia Crocheron. Many a Good Crusade: Memoirs of. New York: Macmillan, 1955. Print. p. 412.
[270] "Dorothy Thompson." Encylopaedia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/592960/Dorothy-Thompson
[271] The information from this section comes largely from American Cassandra: The Life of Dorothy Thompson, by Peter Kurth; "Remembering Dorothy Thompson," by Peter Kurth, October 26, 2004: http://www.ifamericansknew.org/media/dthompson.html, PeterKurth.com [no longer on site], Dorothy Thompson: A Legend in her Time, by Marion K Sanders;Personal History, by Vincent Sheean, Dorothy & Red (Dorothy Thompson & Sinclair Lewis), by Vincent Sheean, and Elmer Berger's Memoirs of an Anti-Zionist Jew, pp.62-70.
[272] "Sands of Sorrow" by Council for the Relief of Palestine Arab Refugees, 1950. View online at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lQ6lIsl-pHU Also available athttp://www.archive.org/details/sands_of_sorrow
[273] Kurth, 384
[274] Kurth, 384.
[275] "The Press: Free Speech for the Boss," Time, Nov. 17, 1958. Online at:http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,810661,00.html
[276] Kurth, 383.
[277] Nineten Eighty-Four, by George Orwell.
Interestingly, a biographer states: "In his last years, unlike several of his comrades around Tribune, Orwell had little sympathy with Zionism and opposed the creation of the state of Israel, as attested by his friend and Tribune colleague Tosco Fyvel in his book George Orwell: A Personal Memoir."
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