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    A Flashback Of Zionist Events: poison water and poison gas used on Palestinians then and now

    Flashback May 1948: Zionists poison water
    supply in Acre, Palestine, and then use poison
    gas in Gaza; 1947: Zionists release Cholera in
    Egypt and Syria; depopulation of 530
    Palestinian villages, etc.....


    Traces of poison
    Israel's Dark History revealed.

    Israel, not Iraq, holds that distinction of
    being the first country in the region to uses
    weapons of mass destruction with genocidal intent.


    Salman Abu-Sitta digs into a dark history

    At a time when TV screens are filled with images of
    perceived weapons of mass destruction (WMD) in Iraq
    among people who are on the verge of starvation, the West
    turns a blind eye to the first biological terrorist
    in the Middle East, Israel, where the largest depot of
    WMD between London and Peking is located.

    When confronted with the anomaly, the United States
    ambassador to the UN, John Negroponti, responds with
    typical cynicism, "Israel did not use these weapons
    against its people or its neighbours." Assuming that
    the ambassador is well-informed, this
    statement is a patent lie. Israel used biological
    weapons even before it was created on
    Arab soil in 1948 and ever since.

    The purpose, according to Ben Gurion, is genocide, and
    if not complete, the purpose is not to allow the
    dispossessed Palestinians to return to their homes.

    POISONING ACRE WATER SUPPLY: In the wake of Haifa's
    occupation on 23 April 1948 by the Zionists, under
    the nose of the British Mandate forces commended by
    General Stockwell, a man still historically discredited
    for this failure, thousands converged on Acre, a
    nearby city, which was still Arab under the
    "protection" of the British forces.
    Acre was to be the next Zionist target.
    The Zionists besieged the city from the land
    side, and started showering the population with a hail
    of mortar bombs day and night.

    Famous for its historical walls, Acre could stand the
    siege for a long time. The city water supply comes
    from a nearby village, Kabri, about 10kms to the north,
    through an aqueduct. The Zionists injected typhoid
    in the aqueduct at some intermediate point which
    passes through Zionist settlements.

    The story can now be toldthanks to the
    International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
    files which have now become available, 50 years
    after the event. A series of reports,
    under the reference G59/1/GC, G3/82, sent by ICRC
    delegate de Meuron from 6 May to about
    19 May 1948 describe the conditions of the city
    population, struck by a sudden typhoid
    epidemic, and the efforts to combat it.

    Of particular importance are the minutes of an
    emergency conference held at the Lebanese
    Red Cross Hospital in Acre on 6 May, to deal
    with the typhoid epidemic. The meeting was
    attended by: Brigadier Beveridge, Chief of
    British Medical Services and Colonel Bonnet
    of the British Army, Dr Maclean of the Medical
    Services, Mr de Meuron, ICRC delegate in
    addition to other officials of the city.

    The minutes stated that there are at least 70
    known civilian casualties, others may not be reported.
    It was determined that the infection is "water borne",
    not due to crowded or unhygienic conditions as claimed by
    the Israelis. It was decided that a substitute water
    supply should now come from artesian wells or from
    the agricultural station, just north of Acre,
    not from the aqueduct. Water chlorine solution was
    applied, inoculation of civil population
    started, movement of civil population was controlled
    (lest refugees heading north
    towards Lebanon will carry the typhoid epidemic
    with them, as intended by the Zionists).

    In his other reports, de Meuron mentioned 55
    casualties among British soldiers, who were
    spirited away to Port Said for hospitalisation.
    General Stockwell arranged for de Meuron
    to fly on a military plane to Jerusalem to fetch
    medicine. The British, who left Palestine in the
    hands of the Jews, did not want another embarrassing
    incident to delay their departure.

    Brigadier Beveridge told de Meuron that this is
    "the first time this happened in Palestine".
    This belies the Israeli story, including that of
    the Israeli historian Benny Morris, that the epidemic
    is due to "unhygienic conditions" of the refugees.
    If that was so, how come there was an almost equal
    number of casualties among British soldiers? Why
    did such conditions not cause epidemic in such other
    concentrations of refugees, under far worse conditions,
    in Jaffa, Lydda, Nazareth and Gaza?

    ICRC delegate, de Meuron admired greatly the heroic
    efforts of Arab doctors, Al-Dahhan and Al-Araj from
    the Lebanese Red Cross hospital in Acre, Dr Dabbas
    from Haifa and Mrs Bahai from Haifa.

    The city of Acre, now burdened by the epidemic,
    fell easy prey to the Zionists. They
    intensified their bombardment. Trucks carrying
    loudspeakers proclaimed, "Surrender or
    commit suicide. We will destroy you to the
    last man." That was not a figure of speech.
    Palumbo, in The Palestinian Catastrophe,
    notes the "typical" case of Mohamed Fayez
    Soufi. Soufi with friends went to get food
    from their homes in a new Acre suburb. They
    were caught by Zionist soldiers and forced at
    gun point to drink cyanide. Soufi faked
    swallowing the poison. The others were not
    so lucky, they died in half an hour.
    Lieutenant Petite, a French UN observer,
    reported that looting was being conducted
    in a systematic manner by the army, carrying off
    furniture, clothes and anything useful for
    the new Jewish immigrants and also part of
    "a Jewish plan to prevent the return of the
    refugees." Lieutenant Petite also reported
    that the Jews had murdered 100 Arab civilians
    in Acre, particularly those who refused to leave.

    More horrors have been reported by de Meuron. He
    spoke of "a reign of terror" and the case of the
    rape of a girl by several soldiers and killing
    her father. He also wrote that all male civilians
    were taken to concentration camps and considered
    "prisoners of war" although they were not soldiers.
    This left many women and children homeless,
    without protection, subject to many acts of
    violence. He also notes the absence of water
    and electricity. He demanded from the Zionists
    a list of civilians detained as "prisoners of war",
    demanded to know their whereabouts and permission
    to visit them.

    More importantly he asked that Acre be placed under
    ICRC protection and care. Anyone who reads the
    familiar dry and matter-of-fact language of
    ICRC would not fail to notice the tone of abhorrence
    of Zionist actions in de Meuron reports from Acre.

    This episode, which started with poisoning Acre water
    supply and ended with the collapse
    of the city, the depopulation of its inhabitants,
    and its occupation by the Jews, whetted their
    appetite to try this crime again.

    GAZA POISONING: Two weeks later,
    after their "success" in Acre, the Zionists struck
    again. This time in Gaza, where hundreds of thousands
    of refugees had gathered after their villages in southern
    Palestine were occupied. The end however was different.

    The following cable was sent from the commander of the
    Egyptian Forces in Palestine to General Headquarters
    in Cairo:

    "15.20 hrs, 24 May [1948] Our Intelligence forces
    captured two Jews, David Horeen and David Mizrahi,
    loitering around army positions. They were
    interrogated and confessed they had been sent
    by Officer Moshe to poison the army [and the
    peoples'] water supply. They carried with
    them water bottles divided in the middle.
    The top part has potable water and the bottom
    part has a liquid contaminated with typhoid
    and dysentery, equipped with a rear opening
    from which the liquid can be released. They
    confessed they were members of a 20-strong
    team sent from Rehovot for the same purpose.
    Both have written their confession in Hebrew
    and signed it. We have taken the necessary
    medical precautions."


    In Ben Gurion's War Diary, the following entry is
    found on 27 May 1948:

    "[Chief of Staff Yigel Yadin] picked up a cable from
    Gaza saying they captured Jews carrying malaria germs
    and gave instructions not to drink water".

    This is typical of Ben Gurion's oblique writing of history.
    He was fully aware of the weight of history when
    such crimes are discovered. Nuremberg trials were held
    only three years before. More on the background of this
    cable was given in Yeruham Cohen's book, In Daylight and Night
    Darkness, Tel Aviv, 1969, pp66-68 (in Hebrew).

    The criminals were executed three months later.
    On 22 July 1948, the [Palestinian]
    Higher Arab Committee (AHC) submitted a 13-page
    report to the United Nations accusing
    the Jews of using "inhuman" weapons and waging a
    genocide war against the Arabs through the use of
    bacteria and germs, developed in specially-built
    laboratories. The report also accuses the Jews
    (the word Israel was not used) of spreading cholera
    in Egypt and Syria in 1947/48. The story was picked
    up by the award-winning journalist, Thomas J Hamilton
    of the New York Times and published on 24 July 1948.

    The story now has a new twist- adding Egypt and Syria
    to the Jewish field of operations.

    CHOLERA IN EGYPT AND SYRIA:
    The summer of 1947 was hot
    with diplomatic activity. The United Nations Special
    Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP) was busy touring
    Palestine and Arab countries in order to propose the
    partition of Palestine such that the new Jewish
    immigrants to Palestine, who controlled only six per
    cent of Palestine under the British Mandate, be given
    a big chunk of Palestine (turned out to be 54 per cent)
    in order to establish a foreign state in the
    midst of Arab land.

    The Arabs, still under the tutelage of Britain,
    were debating how to resist the
    Western-supported scheme to take away their land.
    The forces to reckon with were neighbouring countries
    with common borders with Palestine. Lebanon was weak.
    Trans-Jordan was still controlled directly by the
    British and King Abdullah was conciliatory to the Jews.
    This left Egypt, the stronger Arab country and Syria,
    recently freed from the clutches of the French Mandate.
    Syria was the centre of Arab resistance
    to the foreign occupation of Palestine.
    Training centres were established in Qatana to prepare Arab
    volunteers to enter Palestine under the banner of
    "The Arab Rescue Army".

    Egypt and Palestine were thus the most important targets.
    In his 220-page continually updated report, entitled:
    Bioterrorism and Biocrimes: The
    Illicit Use of Biological Agents since 1900, dated
    February 2001, Dr W Seth Carus of the Center for
    Counterproliferation Research, National Defence University,
    Washington, DC, lists the following subtitle,
    p.87: Case 1947-01: "Zionist" Terrorists 1947-1948.

    Under this section, he mentions that the cholera outbreaks
    in Syria and Egypt received extensive attention in the
    international press. The first report about the cholera
    in Egypt was published in the Times of London on 26
    September, 1947, p4. By the time the final cases appeared
    in January 1948, 10,262 people died.

    He also states that the outbreak in Syria is much
    smaller. It was limited to two towns, about 60 kilometres
    south of Damascus, i.e. close to Palestine border. The
    first report appeared in the New York Times on 22
    December, 1947, p5. The Syrian army formed a cordon
    sanitaire and the casualties were limited to 44,
    including 18 deaths. Soon after, the Beirut
    French-language newspaper, Orient, reported that several
    Zionist agents, who employed cholera to disrupt the
    mobilisation of the volunteers' army, were arrested.
    Their destiny is unknown.

    These incidents, together with Gaza poisoning, Carus states,
    were described in the AHC complaint to the UN and quotes
    the report in saying that:

    "The Jews plan to use this inhuman weapon
    against the Arabs in the Middle East in their
    war of extermination."


    Carus adds information from other sources about the
    Gaza poisoning. Rachel Katzman, Horeen's sister, Carus stated,
    said: "I met one of [my brother's] commanders in a
    lecture in Jerusalem. I asked him whether my brother had
    really attempted to poison wells. 'These were the weapons
    we had', he said, 'and that's that.'"

    Carus also adds another source about Acre poisoning:
    This source sates, "This account also claims that the
    Israelis poisoned the water supply of the Arab town of Acre,
    causing a major outbreak, and other Arab villages to
    prevent the villagers from returning, citing military
    historian Uri Milstein as a source" [Wendy Barnaby, The
    Plague Makers: The Secret World of Biological Warfare,
    London, Vision Paperbacks, 1997, pp114-116].

    The writer has obtained a copy of an e-mail in which an
    Israeli peace activist asked Uri Milstein about Acre
    poisoning story. Milstein, the military historian, is
    described in the e-mail as "very knowledgeable,
    intelligent, courageous, original, honest" --
    although his views belong to the Israeli far-right (!).

    Milstein replied:
    "I am sorry to say it, but the story is true and the name
    of the operation was "Shlach Lachmecha" -- that is "donate
    your bread", which is a part of Hebrew saying: donate your
    bread because sooner or later you will get it back, meaning
    you have to be generous and one day, you will profit from it
    yourself. Is this not a cute name for an operation to use
    biological weapons?"

    HOW DID BEN GURION START ALL THIS?
    On the fourth of March
    1948, Ben Gurion wrote a letter to Ehud Avriel, one of the
    Jewish Agency operatives in Europe, ordering him to
    recruit East European Jewish scientists who could
    "either increase [our] capacity to kill masses or to cure
    masses; both are important". This truncated quotation is
    given byAvner Cohen who cited an author in Ben Gurion
    Research Centre at Sdeh Boker.

    To understand the meaning of this quotation we must
    recall Ben Gurion's doctrine: the destruction of the
    Palestinian Society in Palestine is a necessary
    condition for the establishment of the state of Israel
    on its ruins. As a corollary to this doctrine,
    ethnic cleansing became an integral part of Zionism.
    If Palestinians cannot be removed by massacres and expulsion,
    they shall be removed by "extermination". Such words were
    specifically used in AHC letter mentioned above.
    The significance of this word is that it was rarely used
    by Arabs regarding their fate. Europe's horrors were
    either remote or not widely known then.

    The caveat by Ben Gurion as "to cure the masses" is yet
    another twist by Ben Gurion with an eye on history.
    For it is inconceivable that the Arabs have the ability or
    the will in 1948 to cause "mass killing" of the Jews using
    biological weapons. As it happened, Ben Gurion was the
    first to use such weapons. His legacy, much more refined
    and expanded, remains true till today.

    Avner Cohen, a senior fellow at the Center for
    International and Security Studies, and the Program
    on Security and Disarmaments at the University of Maryland,
    wrote a comprehensive paper on Israel's chemical and
    biological weapons, which was published in the
    Non-Proliferation Review, Autumn 2001. Notwithstanding his
    background, which furnishes a sympathetic understanding of
    Israel's motives, his paper traces in 50 pages of detail,
    from open sources and few interviews, the establishment
    and development of Israel's centre for biological terrorism.

    Thrusting Israel in the heart of the Arab world,
    Ben Gurion was determined to achieve this extraordinary
    objective against all odds. "We are inferior to other
    peoples in our number, but no other people is superior
    to us in intellectual prowess," Ben Gurion remarked.

    In the 1940s, he gathered around him Ernst David Bergmann,
    Avraham Marcus (Marek) Klingberg (from the Red Army) and the
    brothers Aharon and Ephraim Katachalsky (Katzir) -- all
    experts in microbiology. They formed the nucleus of the
    Science Corps in the Haganah during the British Mandate.
    Ephraim Katachalsky was named commander of this new unit,
    renamed HEMED, in May 1948. A dispute arose between Chaim
    Weizmann who wished to establish a scientific institute
    for "clean" science, while Ben Gurion insisted on building
    a "dirty" centre for biological weapons. Both got their
    wishes realised. Weizmann Institute for scientific
    research was built in Rehovot. A new unit within HEMED,
    devoted to biological weapons and named HEMED BEIT,
    was formed as a branch of the Israeli Army. Its head
    was Alexander Keynan, a microbiologist from the medical
    school at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem.

    With the depopulation of 530 Palestinian towns and
    villages in Al-Nakba of 1948, many buildings and homes
    became vacant and over half of the Jewish immigrants
    in the 1950s were housed in them. The Chief of Staff
    Yigal Yadin selected a home for the new
    biological weapons development unit in a mansion located
    within a large orange grove west of Nes Ziona. This unit,
    publicly known as Israel Institute for Biological Research
    (IIBR), is still there today. The building was expanded,
    surrounded by a three metre wall, movement sensors and
    watch towers.

    While IIBR represents the front of a scientific institution,
    producing a "clean" papers and receiving invitations to
    scientific conferences, the real biological weapons
    developed is carried within IIBR in a highly classified
    centre (Machon 2, one of four) funded and controlled directly
    by the Ministry of Defence. IIBR Web site states that the
    institute's staff comprises 300 employees, 120 of them PhD
    holders, in addition to 100 certified technicians. But these
    figures are misleading because there are many other
    scientists who hold positions in microbiology departments
    in faculties of medicine in Tel Aviv University and the
    Hebrew University in Jerusalem.

    Ephraim Katzir was rewarded for his service to the state
    by being elected as president of Israel in 1973.
    Aharon Katzir was killed in the Japanese attack on
    Lydda airport on 30 May, 1972.

    Soon after the poisoning of Acre and Gaza, Ben Gurion
    launched a crash project to develop "a cheap
    non-conventional capability" in 1955. Why the rush?
    As Cohen reports, Munya Mardor, the founder of Israel's
    Weapons Development Authority (RAFAEL), says that Ben
    Gurion was "evidently concerned that we would not meet
    the deadline he had set, worrying that the enemy would
    have such capability and we would have nothing to deter
    or retaliate". It turned out that the rush was to meet
    the deadline for the Suez Tripartite Aggression of 1956.
    Ben Gurion was prepared to bomb Egypt with biological
    weapons if his campaign failed. As if that was not enough,
    Israel signed an agreement with France to build a nuclear
    programme in the same year. Ben Gurion's emissary to France
    was none other than the peace-loving diplomat Shimon Pensky
    (Perez).

    Anver Cohen says that the location of IIBR is classified
    and not shown on maps or aerial photographs. It is still
    possible, however, to determine its location with accuracy.

    WHERE IS IIBR? In the 1930s, the road from Ramleh to
    Nabi Rubin, a popular religious
    site visited annually, passes through Wadi Hunein, a
    good sandy soil with spots of marshes. The wealthy
    Al-Taji Al-Farouki family from Ramleh purchased large
    tracts of this land and developed it into successful
    citrus groves which exported hundreds of
    thousands of Jaffa orange boxes to Europe.
    Shukri Al-Taji built for himself a beautiful mansion
    (photo) -- a two-storey rectangular building on top of
    a hill, on a plot of land, 134,029 m2 in area.
    The plot number is 549/32 and the property deed is entered
    in the Land Registry under E42/260 on 16 March 1932.
    He also built a mosque on the asphalt road from Jaffa
    to Qubeiba. On another hill, one kilometre to the west,
    his cousin Abdel-Rahman Hamed Al-Taji built a house which
    consists of several buildings. The mansions in the midst
    of vast orange groves depicted an idyllic
    scene in quiet surroundings.

    This is the location chosen by Yigal Yadin for his
    biological weapons research. Shukri Al Taji mansion
    became the home of IIBR. The IIBR Web site
    (www.iibr.gov.il) proudly shows on the opening page
    its building entrance, which is nothing but Shukri's
    mansion with its arched façade and tall lush trees
    (compare with photo). Shukri died broken hearted
    in Cairo some ten years later.

    If you drive from Nes Ziona going west on road 4303,
    then turn left at road 42 heading south, you will find
    IIBR at your right at a distance of 500 metres.
    (see photo of the location). The coordinates of IIBR are:

    According to Palestine/ Israel grid
    : 128.263 E, 147.022 N

    New Israel grid : 178.263 E, 647.022 N

    Geographical coordinates : E 34D 46' 27 N 31D 55' 7

    The area is called "Ayalon" in Hebrew.
    Directly to the west on the sea coast is the
    missile launching pad of Palmahim.

    Other Al-Taji buildings were expropriated and used.
    The mosque is transformed into a
    synagogue, named "gulat Israel". Abdel-Rahman's
    house became a mental hospital.


    CHASING THE CULPRITS:


    Sara Leibovitz-Dar is a persistent investigative journalist.
    The trauma experienced by her parents in their native
    Lithuania left an indelible mark on
    her. She abhorred injustice and, particularly, the meek
    acceptance of it. She investigated the Gaza and Acre
    poisoning and shooting down of the civilian Libyan
    aircraft. The Israeli military historian,
    Uri Milstein, identified for her the names of
    the officers responsible for biological crimes.
    In 1993, Sara tried to interview the commander who
    was responsible for Acre poisoning.
    He refused to talk. "Why do you look for troubles that
    took place 45 years ago?" he
    asked. "I know nothing about this. What would you
    gain by publishing?"
    Again, Sara interviewed the officer responsible for Gaza
    poisoning. He refused to respond, "You will not get answers
    on these questions. Not from me and not from anyone."

    Sara was persistent. She asked Colonel Shlomo Gur, former
    HEMED chief, whether he was aware of the secret operations
    in 1948. "We heard about the typhoid epidemics in Acre
    and about the Gaza operations. There were many rumours but
    I did not know whether they were true or not," he responded.

    Sara published her findings in Hadashot under the title
    "Microbes in State Service", on 13 August, 1993, pp6-10. Sara,
    who now moved to Ha'aretz, concluded with the following comment,

    "What was done then with deep conviction
    and zealotry is now concealed with shame."


    True to the Israeli tradition, Sara declined twice
    to respond by e-mail to an enquiry from the writer.
    Not all are afraid to talk. Naeim Giladi is an Iraqi
    Jew who was lured to Israel by Mossad agents in the
    early 1950s. Working with the zealotry and dedication
    of a new Zionist, he soon found out that within the
    Ashkenazi establishment "there was not much opportunity
    for those of us who were second class citizens", he told
    the editor of The Link in New York where he immigrated
    after leaving Israel. "I began to find out about the
    barbaric methods to rid the fledgling state of as many
    Palestinians as possible. The world recoils today at the
    thought of bacteriological warfare, but Israel was
    probably the first to actually use it in the Middle East.
    Jewish forces would empty Arab villages of their
    population often by threats, sometimes by gunning down a
    half-dozen young men so that the Arabs could not return.
    The Israelis put typhus and dysentery bacteria in the
    water wells to prevent the refugees from returning".
    [The Link, Vol. 31 Issue 2, April-May 1998].

    Another witness who spoke, former Mossad agent, Victor
    Ostrovsky, claims that lethal tests have been performed on
    Arab prisoners inside the IIBR compound.

    THE DUTCH INVESTIGATION: On 4 October, 1992 at
    6.21pm, El Al Flight 1862 left Amsterdam's Schiphol airport
    on route to Tel Aviv, carrying three crewmen, one
    passenger and 114 tons of freight. Seven minutes later,
    it crashed in a high-rise apartment complex in Bijlmer.
    El Al Flight 1862 became the worst air disaster in Dutch
    history, killing at least 47 (the actual number is unknown
    because many victims were immigrants) and destroyed the
    health of 3000 Dutch residents. Cases of mysterious
    illnesses, rashes, difficulty in breathing, nervous
    disorders and cancer began to sprout in that neighbourhood
    and beyond.

    The Dutch government, in collusion with Israel, lied to
    its citizens saying the plane was carrying perfumes and
    flowers. Some flowers! It took the energetic and persistent
    science editor in the Dutch daily NRC Handelsblad, Karel
    Knip, several years to discover the facts. Knip published
    on 27 November 1999 the most detailed and factual
    published investigation about the workings of biological
    terrorism housed in IIBR.

    First he found out that the plane was carrying 50
    gallons, among other things, of DMMP a substance used
    to make a quarter ton of the deadly nerve gas Sarin,
    20 times as lethal as cyanide. It was carrying a
    shipment from Solkatronic Chemicals of Morrisville,
    Pennsylvania to IIBR in Israel, under a US Department
    of Commerce licence. This is contrary to the Chemical
    Weapons Convention (CWC) to which the US, but not
    Israel, is party.

    With dogged determination, Knip reviewed the scientific
    literature produced by IIBR and the microbiology
    departments of the Faculty of Medicine in the University
    of Tel Aviv and the Hebrew University since 1950. He was
    able to identify 140 scientists involved in biological
    weapons (BW) research. The number could be more as
    scientists have dual positions or they move around.
    Many take their sabbaticals invariably in the United
    States. There are strong links with Walter Reed Army
    Institute, the Uniformed Services University, the
    American Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Center
    in Edgewood and the University of Utah.

    Remarkably, Knip was able to identify three categories
    of IIBR production: diseases, toxins and convulsants,
    and their development in each decade of the
    five past decades.

    The research moved from virus and bacteria to toxins
    because they are many times more
    poisonous. Nerve gases known as Tabun, Soman, Sarin,
    VX, Cyclo-Sarin, RVX and Amiton are all deadly gases
    and function in the same way.

    Knip went further. He sought the assistance of
    experts in this field such as Professor Julian
    Perry Robinson, University of Sussex, Brighton,
    Dr Jean Pascal Zanders of SIPRI, Stockholm and
    Professor Malcolm Dando, University of Bradford.
    They guided his research and explained his findings.

    Knip also discovered close cooperation between IIBR
    and the British-American BW
    programme. This programme deals with viruses and
    bacteria spread by rodents and insects and covers
    smallpox, fungal diseases and Legionnaires disease.
    It is to be noted that there was a breakout of this
    disease in Philadelphia some years ago, and, surprisingly,
    in an Eilat hotel in mid- January this year.

    The interest in the plant poison Elate-Ricin is confined to very
    few institutions beside IIBR. It will be recalled that amateur
    biologists were arrested in UK in January attempting
    to prepare Ricin.

    The novel and dangerous trend in BW research in
    IIBR is the development of incapacitants which
    paralyse, disorient, cause uncontrollable movements
    and severe pain in the stomach. Most of these
    incapacitants have antidotes to repair the damage done.
    These incapacitants have been and are used against the
    Palestinians in the Intifada.

    There is also extensive collaboration on BW research
    with Germany and Holland. That is probably the reason
    for the Dutch official silence over the deadly crash
    over Amsterdam.

    The cooperation with the US is quite open. The Congress
    "Joint Medical, Biological and Nuclear Defence Research
    Programs" openly lists cooperation with Israel on nerve
    agents and convulsants under the guise of finding antidotes.
    It is plainly simple to realise that in order to develop the
    antidote it is necessary to identify the poison itself. Dr
    Avigdor Shafferman, IIBR director, is a frequent contributor
    to this programme.
    (see www.acq.osd.mil/cp/nbc98/annexd.pdf)-
    Annex D.

    The Preparatory Commission for the Organisation for
    the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons
    (OPCW) in The Hague turns a blind eye to the Israeli
    criminal activities. Ironically,
    Israeli researchers guide OPCW on methods to detect
    Chemical Weapons. Israeli
    researchers R Barak, A Lorber and Z Boger of IIBR,
    CHEMO Solutions and Rotem Industries
    respectively propose methods to detect chemical
    warfare agents. No international body
    seems to be willing to apply these methods on Israel.
    The mechanism to do this monitoring is available.
    The American Armed Forces Medical
    Intelligence Center has the wherewithal to
    inspect suspect laboratories. But it is
    unlikely to see a team of inspectors headed by an
    American Blix searching the secret
    chambers of IIBR.
    This may, however, not apply to conscientious
    scientists. Professor Keith Yamamoto, of
    the University of California and Dr Jonathan King of
    MIT criticised the American BW
    research and showed that attempting to modify
    toxins (as IIBR does) can hardly be
    considered "defensive" research. But Israel's turn in
    such criticism seems far-off at present.

    THE PALESTINIAN VICTIMS:

    The biological crimes perpetrated against the
    Palestinians in Acre and Gaza in 1948 are still
    being enacted today.

    In 1997, Mossad agents tried to assassinate Khaled Mish'al,
    Hamas Political Bureau's director in Amman. King Hussein
    was furious at the blatant violation of Jordan's
    sovereignty and of the Peace Treaty with Israel.
    As the attempt failed, thanks to Mish'al's bodyguard,
    Israel sent a lady doctor with the antidote. The
    toxin used is likely to be SEB applied through a special
    gun which has a range of 50 metres. and could inject the
    toxin in the neck.

    The stories about nerve gas applied against school children
    abound. So are the cases in which CBW are used. Neil
    Sammonds lists these cases:

    ï Chemical defoliants against Palestinian crops in
    Ain Al- Beida in 1968, Aqraba in
    1972, Mejdel Beni Fadil in 1978 and Negev in 2002.

    ï Chemical Weapons, including hydrogen cyanide, nerve
    gas and phosphorous shells in the 1982 war on Lebanon.

    ï Lethal gas against Palestinian and Lebanese prisoners.
    But the case which was widely publicised all over the world
    and fully documented by
    several international NGOs is the application of
    incapacitants, particularly in Khan
    Younis, in February 2001. The pictures of victims
    twisting with severe pain and uncontrollable convulsions
    were splashed on TV screens everywhere.
    James Brooks of "Just Peace in Palestine/Israel" gave
    a detailed account of this BW attack on civilians day by
    day as it happened. First, the victims thought it was tear
    gas. It had a faint odour like mint. It smelled "like sugar",
    one victim reported. It changed colour "like a rainbow".
    Fifteen minutes later, the victim felt that his
    "stomach was torn apart, with burning sensation in
    [his] chest, could not breathe". Soon
    convulsions started. The victim would jump up and down,
    left and right, thrashing limbs
    around, with a kind of hysteria. Some victims were
    unconscious. The victim would vomit
    incessantly and then pain would return. This would go on
    for days or, for some, weeks. In addition to the numerous
    press and human rights reports, convulsing poison gas
    victims in Khan Younis were filmed by the American
    filmmaker James Longley, in a documentary that "pushes
    the viewer headlong into the tumult of the Israeli- occupied
    Gaza". Longley compiled a 43-page document of interviews
    with 19 gas victims, their relatives, nurses and doctors.

    These devilish incapacitants drew the protest of some NGOs
    but little else. No international investigation or
    censureship of any kind, even though this was repeatedly
    used in March in Al- Birch, Nablus and West Bank and yet
    again in Gaza later that month.

    Just the contrary. There was a wide-spread Zionist-
    orchestrated condemnation and disapproval when, in
    November 1999, Suha Arafat, the president's wife,
    charged the Israelis with the use of "poison gas" in
    the presence of the aspiring politician Hillary Clinton.
    The height of hypocrisy and cynicism was attained when
    the incensed Israeli authorities declared that Suha's
    factual statement is "a violation of the peace process"!

    There are as yet unseen and long-term effects of toxins
    and incapacitants. On 3 February, 2003, Dr Khamis
    Al-Najjar, director of Cancer Research Centre of the
    Ministry of Health in Ramallah reported an alarming
    increase in cancer cases, especially among women and
    children. The report covers the period 1995-2000 and
    shows 3646 cases, with more than half among females.
    The cases in Gaza are more than the West Bank. The
    report, citing the rate of increase, predicts that cases
    will triple in the near future.

    Taking note of the Israelis' paranoia about Palestinian
    demography and judging by their previous record, it is
    possible that the accumulative effect of the Israeli
    application of toxins and incapacitants has produced
    the increased incidence of cancer cases. A similar
    study is yet to be made on fetus and newborn babies.

    WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE? Israel has signed but not
    ratified the Chemical Weapons
    Convention and is not a party to the Biological
    Weapons Convention. Israel does not
    recognise the application of the Fourth Geneva
    Convention on the Occupied Palestinian
    Territories of the West Bank and Gaza, as the rest
    of the world does. This is not
    surprising. Israel violates every rule in the book.
    Article 147 of the Geneva Convention stipulates that
    to "willingly cause [civilians]
    great suffering or serious injury to body or health" is a
    "grave breach", which, according to Article 146, requires
    all High Contracting Parties to "search for persons
    alleged to have committed or to have ordered to commit
    such grave breaches" and must "bring such person regardless
    of their nationality before their own courts". If this is
    applied, Sharon and his officers will stand behind bars in a
    Belgian court for a long time.

    There is a plethora of conventions which Israel constantly
    violated, starting with Geneva Protocol of 1925 on Poisonous
    Gas to the 1993 Convention on the Prohibition of
    the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of
    Chemical Weapons. With this background, it seems a mockery
    of justice to dispatch hundreds of inspectors to destroyed
    workshops and private homes in Iraq, while huge tons of
    weapons of mass destruction are staring them in the eye
    in Israel. Perhaps the 10 million people in 600
    cities around the world who demonstrated against the war
    on Iraq on 15 and 16 February were trying to point out
    this irony in refusing this war. Some placards said so
    in clear terms.

    Perhaps the domestic voice in Israel may be listened to more
    attentively. The Mayor of Nes Ziona, located a mere 10
    kilometres away from Tel Aviv centre, complained that the
    proximity of IIBR to his city poses a great danger to the
    population, in case of accident. He is right. The Science
    Committee in the Knesset reported 22 casualties including three
    fatal cases in the last 15 years. But these were mild cases.
    What would be the situation if a big accident happens
    on a windy day, causing explosion of tons of toxics and its
    evaporation in the sky, in a congested neighbourhood,
    where three million people live in an area of barely
    1000sqkms, that is 35X35 km? Ben Gurion,
    while cooking his evil plans to "exterminate" the Arabs,
    did not envisage this scenario
    in his wildest dreams.

    The writer is president of
    Palestine Land Society, London.

    DISEASES

    1950-1960
    Yersinia pestis (plague)
    Rickettsia species (typhus)
    Rabies

    1960-1970
    West Nile virus
    Leptospira species (e.g. Weil's disease)
    Cryptococcus neoformans (a yeast)
    Sindbis virus
    Newcastle disease (birds)

    1970-1980
    African Swine fever
    Coxiella burnetti (Q fever)
    Western Equine encephalomyelitis
    Semliki Forest virus
    Brucella abortus (brucellosis)
    Pasteurella multocida (fowl cholera)

    1980-1990
    Lassa virus
    EMC (encephalomyocarditis)
    Legionella
    Rift Valley fever
    Marek's disease (poultry)
    Coccidioides immitis (fungus)

    TOXINS
    1960-1970
    Elatericin

    1970-1980
    Saxitoxin
    Tetrodotoxin
    Pilocarpine-derivatives
    Wasp venom
    Elatericin-derivatives
    Brevetoxin
    SEB (Staphylococcus enterotoxin B)
    Scorpion venom

    1. Cobra venom
    SEA (Staph.enterotoxin A)
    Cholera toxin
    Bungarotoxin
    Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A Shiga Toxin

    1. Conotoxin
    Diphteria toxin
    INCAPACITANTS

    1. Bradykinin
    Psychotropic substances
    Cannabis (hashish)
    Phencyclidine (hallucinogen)

    1. Chlorpromazin (anti-psychoticum)
    Cannabis-derivatives (tetrahydrocannabinol)
    Fentanyl (narcoticum)
    QNB-derivatives (hallucinogen)
    Enkephalin
    Endorphin
    Morphin

    1. Etonitazen
    Phencyclidine derivatives
    Benzodiazepin derivatives (convulsants)
    Heroin
    Cannabis derivatives (amino-cannabinoida)

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